Project #93955 - Psychology class week 4 discussions

Instructions for Week 4 Class discussions due 11/18/2015 05:00 am Pacific Standard Time




Question 1: How did then-current advances in other fields influence the rise of cognitive psychology? (text, p. 351-167) (A History of Modern Psychology 10th edition by Duane Schultz), 


 In what ways were the ongoing sciences of psychology inadequate for explaining human experience?


How has the development of cognitive psychology changed the way we approach study of the human mind?


 You can find a good video introduction to the topic HERE: A brief history of cognitive psychology. (HD) the overview has


  1. Pillars and Brief History

  2. Challenges to Behaviorism

  3. Early Influences on cognition

  4. Recent Metaphors for cognition

    You can find it on YouTube


    Please answer the above questions under question1 by watching this video. Must cite everything. Times Roman Font, 12, double size.



Question 3:


How did Carl Rogers change the practice of psychotherapy? How comfortable would you be if your counselor acted like this?


 what do you see as the strengths and weaknesses of this method of therapy?


 To what extent are the methods devised by Rogers still used in counseling settings?


 Below is a series of 10-minute clips showing Rogers using his style of therapy in the classic "Gloria" films. Gloria was treated by several famous therapists while being filmed. This is a rare opportunity to see "inside" therapy; you don't have to watch all the videos to get a sense of how it works. 


Please google the video on you tube.


Carl Rogers & Gloria Counselling Part 1 (low)


Carl Rogers and Gloria Counselling Pt 2 (low)


Carl Rogers and Gloria Counselling Pt 3 (low)


Carl Rogers and Gloria Counselling Pt 4 (low)


Please respond to student Crystal Kingsley thread using different color


Cognitive psychology has certainly been influenced by other fields going back to as far as 385 BC during the Greek era of philosophy influenced by Plato and Aristotle. Following the era of philosophical thought came the revolution of science which then lead to the emphasis on medicine (A Brief History of Cognitive Psychology, n.d.). 


 Moving forward, both Behaviorism & Gestalt psychology had influences on the rise of cognitive psychology. Within the behaviorist movement, E.R. Guthrie proposed that stimuli should not always be thought of in physical terms. And E.C. Tolman proposed more significance be placed on cognitive mapping and cognitive variables instead of the stimulus-response approach which was popular amongst behaviorists (Schultz & Schultz, 2012). Gestalt proponents influenced cognitive psychology as well with their focus on the role of the subject, as well as their emphasis on structure, organization, relationships, and the significance of learning and memory (Schultz & Schultz, 2012). However, it was behaviorism which largely ignored the concepts of the mind with regards to consciousness and the process of consciousness. Because behaviorism focused solely on stimuli response, external forces of behavior, and ignored how the human mind organized experience and stimuli with regards to its environment, these limitations became the driving force that allowed cognition to slowly surface in the field of psychology (Schultz & Schultz, 2012).


 While cognitive psychology did not become more acknowledged until the 1950’s with the clock metaphor of the 17th century being replaced by the 20th century computer metaphor, indications of its presence were seen in the work of Wilhelm Wundt and the value he placed on the human mind's ability for creative activity and his introspective methods (A Brief History of Cognitive Psychology, n.d.; Schultz & Schultz, 2012). Additionally, the published work of Jean Piaget on his ideas of cognitive development went largely ignored due to America’s focus on behaviorism. Piaget placed emphasis on the structures within the mind as well as the process of human development (A Brief History of Cognitive Psychology, n.d.).  There were two major figures during the transition to the cognitive psychology that really influenced the movement: George Miller who gave much light to information processing in his studies on short-term memory; and Ulric Neisser who stressed the importance that psychology be focusing on applying research to practical real-world problems (Schultz & Schultz, 2012).  


 The cognitive psychology movement reestablished consciousness not only in humans but in Animals as well, exposing the similarities between humans and animals (Schultz & Schultz, 2012). Furthermore, the movement has made significant advances in scientific psychology as well as the study of the human mind. The emergence of artificial intelligence and cognitive neuroscience has shown us the ongoing growth and wide range of influences the study of cognition has on science. Overall, the shift in perspective has brought psychology back to placing more importance on subjective matters which largely faded into the background during the behaviorist movement (Schultz & Schultz, 2012). Although cognitive psychology is ever evolving, it has continued to acknowledge many other areas and historical concepts that have influenced psychology as a whole. 




 A Brief History of Cognitive Psychology. (n.d.). Retrieved from:


Schultz, D.P. & Schultz, S.E. (2012) A history of Modern Psychology (10th edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning


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