Project #85475 - Critical Analysis of Paper - 3 Paragraphs (# 2)


Personally critique the following paper (below). Three (or more) paragraphs with three sources total to back up your response. Your points can be opposing or concurrance, I would prefer some of both. 


APA Format. DO NOT WRITE A RESEARCH PAPER, PLEASE! This is a personal discussion response. Let me know if you have questions.







Advanced technology and the new age of cyber space has provided a means for nearly everyone in the world to connect with each other. People's experiences in cyber space are not isolated. Everyone uses technology in their daily activities, and more businesses than ever before rely on technology to expand their businesses across the globe. The Internet has allowed for the creation of an interconnected business ecosystem, and there is now greater access to knowledge, information, products, and services from industries all around the world. With this increased connectivity, every industry faces similar generalized risks inherent to working in cyber space, and the world's population is exposed to the same vulnerabilities and threats of cyber crime. Because of this, there is a global responsibility for everyone, from individuals to industry sectors, to cooperate in cyber security efforts in order to maintain cyber space as a safe place to live work and play.

Cyber threats have affected every industry sector on a political, economic, and social level. On an economic level, cyber crime is expensive to individuals and industries across the globe. The Center for Strategic and International Studies reported in 2013 that the estimated annual cost of cyber crime ranges from $375-575 billion dollars (PWC, 2015). Global economy relies on the security of technology and cyber space, and the economy of practically every industry utilizes information technology infrastructures. As Savitz (2012) explains, companies across America offer their services and sell products to multi-national companies, overseas agencies, and to foreign governments. This has made a huge impact on the cyber security market in both the United States and Europe as more organizations and industries invest in cyber security measures to keep themselves and their customers safe (PWC, 2015).

On a political level, more political agencies are becoming involved in cyber security measures. The governments of the world are responsible for keeping its people and businesses safe and stable, and for protecting their property and rights. As more aspects of people's lives become involved in cyber space, the government must do its part to protect its citizens here as well. Governments themselves also rely on the security of information technology. Industries and businesses deal with sensitive data and develop new and competitive information; therefore, governments must protect this information from theft. Friedman (2013) explains "any government that wishes to promote the growth of its digital economy will seek to foster trust in the digital systems that underpin the information ecosystem." One example of political involvement in cyber security is how in 2013 the United States Securities and Exchange Commission began an initiative to assess how broker-dealers and investment advisors were preparing for cyber security. The SEC established a requirement for these agencies to implement risk-assessment processes, as well as assessments vendor risks and due diligence (PWC, 2015). 

Business Need for Global Cooperation

Many companies and organizations utilize the advances in technology and cyber space in order to conduct their business activities and expand their services and products to countless customers across the globe. Organizations now can have increased accessibility to customers, and they can achieve this by partnering with other companies and agencies throughout the world. Organizations therefore rely on each other in order to make their businesses successful, and to provide consumers with services in a secure environment. In order to maintain the security of this relationship, businesses and agencies from around the globe need to cooperate in fulfilling cyber security measures.

A great example of an organization which operates on a multi-national level and which conducts its business entirely online is Amazon was founded in 1994 as an online book retailer situated in Seattle Washington in the United States (Amazon, 2013). Today, however, it has expanded its business throughout the world. Amazon has corporate offices, customer service centers, and fulfillment centers throughout all 50 states, and it has primary international locations in several countries, including China, India, Japan, and throughout Europe (Amazon, 2013). The app store on offers services to customers in over 200 countries. Through the use of innovative technology, has revolutionized the online retailing business. As technology has advanced and its business has grown dramatically, now more than ever before relies on the security of cyberspace for its success. is making a great amount of income each year through its sale of items, particularly its electronics and media items. Additionally, other individuals are relying on as a safe and secure place to conduct business. Conversely, also should be careful of the third parties with whom it partners with or allows access to its information systems. The personal information of customers, including home addresses, phone numbers, credit card numbers, and much more can potentially be stolen and misused through threats from cyber attackers. As a creator of innovative technological products and services, such as the Amazon Cloud, Kindle, and Amazon Fire Phone, Amazon has data knowledge which, if leaked or stolen, could lessen the value of these products and ideas. With so much money and personal information in their hands, needs to take extra precautionary measures to ensure that this information is secure. As a business which functions largely through the use of technology and cyberspace, cyber security measures need to be employed.

Cooperative Efforts

Currently, there are multi-national alliances, associations, and partnerships which exist and function to assist in cyber security efforts. One example is ITU, which is the agency developed by the United Nations which focuses on information and communication technologies. It utilizes global radio spectrums and satellite orbits to implement a standardized way of making sure that global networks have a solid connection (ITU, 2015). Another example of a multi-national alliance is INTERPOL. This agency has become involved in implementing new ways of globally detecting and preventing digital or cyber crimes through its INTERPOL Global Complex for Innovation, which is located in Singapore (INTERPOL, 2015). Additionally, it has developed an Interpol Digital Crime Center, which engages in research, development, training techniques, and coordination of operations in cyber security measures. The World Intellectual Property Organization is an additional example of a multi-national association dedicated to ensuring global cooperation in the field of cyber security, specifically regarding intellectual property and policy information. WIPO provides services on a global level for protecting intellectual property such as patents, trademarks, designs, and appellations of origin (WIPO, 2015).


There are many actions which global businesses as a whole can take to improve cooperation across and within industries. Creating a global environment of security and trust in technology and the Internet is a global responsibility and it requires industries from around the world to take action (Internet Society, 2015). A standard set of policies should be developed by businesses which function on a multi-national level. These policies should be based on open technical standards, which will develop over time with changing technology, and which will be flexible and ready to change as new challenges and cyber threats emerge (Internet Society, 2015). Businesses should comply and assist with government policies and regulations. Ways in which the government can assist in global cyber security efforts is to coordinate efforts used by various businesses, manage stakeholder interests, and to teach the population that cyber security needs to be viewed as a business priority (Friedman, 2013). Multi-national businesses must also ensure that the policies which they develop do not disregard basic rights to privacy and freedom of speech.

Multi-national businesses can increase their global cyber security efforts by partnering with work councils and data protection officers and including them in their business projects. Work councils and data protection officers can help these businesses to focus on their employees and customers by showing them how to strengthen the protection of their personal information, reducing surveillance of employees to a minimum, and by installing monitoring tactics just as a safety net (Otter, Ridder, Casper, & Wesche, 2011). This will allow for increased trust and communication among companies and their employees and customers.

Businesses can also cooperate and collaborate with Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISAC). These centers work within various industry sectors and with global governments to provide services in risk mitigation, incident response, alert, and information sharing (PWC, 2015).

Organizations which function on a multi-national level must also ensure cooperation with any outside third parties with which they do business (PWC, 2015). Ensuring third party due diligence can be achieved by performing protective measures for vendors in order to make sure they have the means and ability to keep a company's information secure. This information should be safeguarded through the use of contracts which will hold vendors and third parties responsible for the information which they have access to. Companies should conduct continues monitoring in order to determine that their vendors are taking measures to ensure their data and information is being protected.

The advanced interconnectivity and accessibility provided by the internet has allowed businesses to function on a multi-national level. Organizations from around the globe conduct business together and large amounts of sensitive and competitive data is transferred through cyber space through the intricate technological features of the Internet. Because of this, all organizations must work together on a global level in order to ensure that this information is kept secure and that their business operations continue to run successfully. Global cooperation on a cyber security level is a necessity among businesses in today’s digital marketplace. 

Works Cited

Amazon. (2013). Amazon Media Room: Overview. Retrieved from

Friedman, A. (2013). “Cybersecurity and Trade: National Policies, Global and Local Consequences”. Center for Technology Innovation at Brookings. Retrieved from

Internet Society. (2015). Internet Society Approach to Cyber Security Policy. Retrieved from

INTERPOL. (2015). Cybercrime. Retrieved from

ITU. (2015). About ITU. Retrieved from

PWC. (2014). Managing Cyber risks in an interconnected world: Key findings from The Global State of Information Security Survey 2015.Retrieved from

Savitz, E. (2012). “The Cybersecurity Market And Dangers Of U.S. Export Law”. Forbes. Retrieved from

World Intellectual Property Organization. (2015). WIPO is the global forum for intellectual property services, policy, information, and cooperation.Retrieved from

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Due By (Pacific Time) 10/08/2015 12:00 am
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