Project #81671 - Psychology discussion

1. What happens in the body and brain while it tries to maintain a healthy weight, and what has gone wrong with obesity?

The hypothalamus is effectively producing and regulating the body's thirst and hunger mechanism. The hypothalamus regulates various hormones that directly affect weight leptin and ghrelin. Leptin is a hormone that decreases hunger, while ghrelin is the hormone that increases hunger. Both hormones are secreted throughout the body and are controlled by our diets.

One of the problems with obesity is that it throws the two hormones out of whack, causing the levels to not operate the way it normally would. It's difficult to lose weight when obese, because the body set point may only gradually change and with the changes in hormones, it may be hard to keep the weight off for some people. Another factor that could affect eating behavior is the amount of sleep we get. Short sleeping patterns causes reduced leptin levels and increased ghrelin. This is likely to increase someones appetite as well. 


  1. If you had to pick only one theory on why we sleep, which one would it be?  Why do you pick this one out of the rest?  Which line of reasoning or research finding do you think is the most compelling?
  2. What is the relationship between sleep and our biological clock?   What are some ways that you (or someone else) might disrupt your biological clock, even with day to day activities?  What could you do to counteract this effect?  


According to Dr. Sonia Ancoli- Israel sleep has to do with healing and restoring the brain but no one knows for sure how much sleep we are supposed to get. She says that with the invention of the light bulb we gave up sleep because now with the internet we have more things to do at night and we have to give up something and for most people that is sleep. I, particularly, feel like she is talking to me. I do feel like I need 10 more hours during the day to do all the things I need to do. It never fails, when I have stuff to do I sacrifice sleep for everything else pretty much. As a drill sergeant in the Army, I constantly work long hours, so for me to spend time with my family I gave up my social life and to do homework I gave up some of my sleep. In a good day I get maybe 6 hours but in a normal day 3 or 4 hours max. Yes like Dr. Ancoli- Israel said I can function fine during the day but after a couple of weeks, my ammune system gets weaker and I start getting the flu, or whatever that thing is that all the Soldiers get when they first get here. Then I start forgetting things that I'm supposed to do. That's when I stop and try to sleep more. At least for a while until I feel better. It is an awful cycle, hence I need 10 more hours of the day. Adults need 7-8 hrs and adolescents need about 9 -11 hours. Lack of sleep causes symtoms similar to insomnia. It also affects memory and concentration as well as it causes depression. It used to be a theory that one came after the other one, but now there is another theory that insomnia goes along with depression.

As we get older our biological clock shifts. So when children turn into adolescents, they don't get sleepy until 0100 in the morning but then get up at noon. Older adults do not get sleepy until late in the afternoon. That is why people get tired and take naps but people shouldn't take naps and instead should go straight to bed and go to sleep. Behavioral therapy is the best way to help someone that has trouble sleeping. According to Dr. Ancoli-Israel you should only do stuff in bed like reading when it relaxes you and excersice at least 6 hours before bed time. When you excersice the body temperature goes up and it takes about 6 hours to come down. Your body temperature has to be down for sleep to happen. You shouldn't have any caffeine after lunch because caffeine keeps you awake and disrupts your sleep habits. The environment of the bedroom should be very dark. Bright lights cause the brain to wake up keeping you from sleeping.

Going to bed early makes you get up early. During adolescence it is hard for kids to go to bed early, most kids outgrow this by the time they become adults but some don't. Melotonin is helpful for shifting sleep to normal society hours. Also a bright light at night can help adults stay awake during the night because older adults get tired ealier. A bright light also helps adolescents to wake up in the morning.



  • Define leadership and explain how effective leaders are determined by the person, the situation, and the person-situation interaction.


Leadership is defined as the ability to direct or inspire others to achieve goals. Some people are natural born leaders. Their effectiveness is due to the character traits they possess. A leader’s social skills, intelligence, their ability to communicate with others, emotional stability, and self-confidence all contribute to a leader’s effectiveness. Leaders possess characteristics that may classify them as a charismatic leader, a transactional leader, or a transformational leader. In addition to a leader’s character traits you must also take into consideration the situation the leader is placed in. A person’s leadership style can contrast in effectiveness based on the group situation the leader is placed in (Stangor, Jhangiani,, & Tarry, 2014).


Stangor, D. C., Jhangiani,, D., & Tarry, D. (2014, Sept 26). Principles of Social Psychology – 1st International Edition. Retrieved Sept 10, 2015, from BC Campus:


4. Imagine you were serving on a jury trial in which you found yourself the only person who believed that the defendant was innocent. What strategies might you use to convince the majority?

When faced with the odds against you, you have two options: 1) conform to the others 2) fight for what you believe in. I, personally, am a person who chooses option number two 99.9% of the time.

The answer for me, when facing a majority, would be leadership strategy and the best weapon to convincing others to see things my way. Taking command of the situation, why you feel it’s right, facts to show you are right, and passion while you speak gains the attention of the others and makes them begin to question their own thought/belief.

In a group setting, there will almost always be an individual (1st person) who does not agree with the majority but is afraid to speak up for different reasons. So, when a 2nd person in the group speaks up against what majority believes, and then the 1st person who had a different idea will feel more comfortable to speak up too.



5. Select one of Sigmund Freud's stages and give a fictional example of an individual who was unable to successfully resolve the stage. What behaviors does the person exhibit? Please explain the behaviors and how they are indicative of a fixation within that stage.

The Anal Stage are for those who are 18 months to three years old. My friend’s little brother Denis is currently at this stage and is struggling to control anal stimulation.  At this stage, the child is focused on removing and absorbing feces. The child must learn how to control anal stimulation through parenting and pressure from the society. After anal fixation, the child’s personality may be effected and resulted with obsessing over perfection, control, and cleanliness. But, the opposite of perfection, control, and cleanliness are messy and disorganized. When the child’s personality results with obsession over perfection, it is called anal retentive. The opposite of perfection, regarding the anal stage, is called anal expulsive (Heffner, 2015).


6. Select one of Freud's stages and give a fictional example of an individual who was unable to successfully resolve the stage. What behaviors does the person exhibit? Please explain the behaviors and how they are indicative of a fixation within that stage.

The most prominent stage that I believe most individuals, in this day and age, were unsuccessful in its development is the oral stage. The unfavorable prevailing oral fixations of cigarette smoking, chewing tobacco (aka dipping) or drinking is evidence that proper development in the oral stage is unceasing. Behaviors of a person with an oral fixation are probably one of the most obvious. They constantly need to satisfy the desire to have an object of preference (food, drug, random object or any other substance) in their mouth. Contrary to popular belief, oral fixations are not restricted to smoking, drinking or such. They can include any object that brings the individual oral pleasure. For example; there are cases of individuals that will eat inedible objects (rocks, laundry detergent, pens etc.) just to satisfy that “need”.


Substantive responses to all, APA citing, and grade A work please

Subject English
Due By (Pacific Time) 09/12/2015 12:00 am
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