Project #80451 - Reply discussions

please write a substantive response to the 8 student responses. Try not to be too critical and try to relate it ot something or be helpful.  atleast 75 words each. 

psy 301

1. In a resting potential, sodium ions are always available in the extracellular fluid but they rarely pass into the neuron.  In your own words, why can’t they get in?

  • During resting potential, sodium ions are always available in the extracellular fluid, but rarely pass into the neuron because they neuron ‘gates’ are closed. This is very similar to fans (sodium/Na+) waiting to get into a stadium (neurons), but the stadium isn’t allowing fans in. The stadium workers (K+) can leave the stadium, but no one can get in.
  • Non-layman’s terms: in a resting potential, the neuron is polarized and therefore inactive; the gates are closed and will not allow the Sodium to enter. The sodium builds up outside the neuron waiting for the gates to open, which occurs when the neuron is depolarized (cause by a stimulant).

In an action potential, sodium ions suddenly gain access to the inside of a neuron.  Can you explain how this happens in your own words? 

  • Layman’s terms: If we follow my example in the 1st part of my discussion, we will see that action potential is the stadium (neuron) opening to allow fans (sodium) inside because it is time for the game (stimulant).
  • Non-layman’s terms: Action potential happens when a stimulant occurs within the body and the gates open to allow sodium access into the neuron.   

3.  There are several mechanisms by which a neuron can be kept from firing. In your own words, describe at least one way that a neuron can be kept from firing an action potential.  If someone already described one of these ways, see if you can describe a different way.

  •  If two different potentials were to enter the neuron and send the potential in opposite directions, then this would cancel out the potential and the neuron would not be able to fire. This would be like the game tug of war (the potential) and each team (IPSP & EPSP) has the same amount of strength. Eventually, the members of each team, would give up and go their own separate way- no one would win. (neuron would not fire)


 2.  Vicodin- Vicodin is an opium derived synthetic substance containing hydrocodone. Vicodin is considered a narcotic, and is categorized as an opioid agonist. Commonly prescribed for pain, this drug is a nervous system depressant: it blocks pain reception in the brain, offering relief, by binding to opioid receptors. Opioid receptors are found in many regions of the nervous system involved in pain transmission and control; including primary afferent neurons, spinal cord, midbrain, and thalamus. Pain is transmitted throughout the nervous system when there is an increase in activity in the primary sensory neurons “induced by strong mechanical or thermal stimuli, or by chemicals released by tissue damage or inflammation”. Vicodin activates the opioid receptors and reduces norepinephrine released in the body. “The inhibition of neurotransmitter release is considered to be the major mechanism of action responsible for clinical effects of opioids”. These effects include feelings of euphoria, pain relief, feeling calm, relaxed, sleepiness, and suppression of appetite. Side effects of Vicodin includes nausea, constipation, vomiting, drowsiness, and suppressed breathing. Children and elderly may be more sensitive to these side effects, especially slowed or shallow breathing, and elderly displaying signs of confusion, dizziness, and drowsiness as well. Vicodin is considered to be a highly addictive substance, and withdrawal symptoms include drug craving, irritability, nausea, vomiting, muscle ache, runny nose, watery eyes, dilated pupils, sweating, diarrhea, yawning, chills, fever, insomnia, and depression. With the high rate of addiction and dependence, combined with increase of side effects, it is especially important to be cautious when prescribing this drug to children and elderly.

A small clip worth reading:

“Opioid drugs, typified by morphine, produce their pharmacological actions, including analgesia, by acting on receptors located on neuronal cell membranes. The presynaptic action of opioids to inhibit neurotransmitter release is considered to be their major effect in the nervous system. Recent advances in the molecular biology of opioid receptors has confirmed that there are 3 types of opioid receptor, m, d and k. All are coupled to intracellular mechanisms via G-proteins. The discovery of the molecular structure of opioid receptors provides more precise approaches for the study of opioid pharmacology. These should lead to the development of new drugs for therapeutic use.”


1.1) Discuss the extent to which personal prejudices could negatively influence criminal justice professionals' decision making processes. I think a good example to answer this question is racial profiling. If an officer has some type of discriminatory attitude toward an ethnic group, he or she may be more likely to pull someone over or approach them without real cause. The officer may successfully find the individual is in violation of some law, but without proper justification for approaching or pulling over that individual that fact may be moot. The officer may then choose to violate the ethical code further and present false evidence as to why he or she approached that individual in order to ensure a conviction. 

2) Is it ever right for a law enforcement officer to allow his or her decision to be based (in whole or in part) upon his or her personal prejudices or negative perceptions of groups or individuals? In my opinion, it is never right. Officers need to be above reproach in order to successfully uphold the law and ensure the safety of the community. Not only is it wrong, but if officers continually harass groups of people based on some bias or prejudice, then those groups or the community at large will not trust law enforcement. This leads to mistrust in the community and lack of cooperation during investigation of crimes. This also leads to unsafe situations in which the community, in its mistrust of officers, does not feel comfortable enough to call police in times of need. Officers should follow the letter of the law and leave their biases at home. 

3) What steps could criminal justice leaders take to limit the extent to which discretion can be utilized inappropriately? It sounds a bit childish, and it is in fact a method I use with my young kids, but role playing is an excellent way to give officers a chance to test their discretionary methods in a learning environment. Giving officers situations during training in which they must use discretion will help supervisors see what kind of decisions their officers are liable to make. These may be good or bad decisions, but whatever the results, supervisors can use them to create targeted training in areas of weakness.

Using more exercises such as used in the academy to train new officers would be beneficial to have on a regular basis. We can't just toss oficers out on the street and demand and expect them to make the correct choices each and every time. The mind is a muscle just like any other in your body and without proper exercise it can grow dull and slow and cause officers to make poor choices during critical incidents. Exercising discretion in a safe environment keeps the officer's minds sharp and helps them make better choices when facing stressful situtions. 


2. 1. In your opinion, is all morality relative (i.e., simply an individual's definition of right and wrong), or are certain morale concepts absolute?


Yes, I believe morality is relative to one’s culture, religious beliefs, and upbringing. I would also mention it is relative to one’s mental state, time period in history, and isolation to other cultures.

Throughout history you can see a paradigm change from what was acceptable in under developed countries to what is acceptable in more developed communities. In isolated, under developed tribes it was once acceptable to kill an elderly person; then eat them. This practice is no longer “widely” conducted in more civilized communities. In the eyes of the under developed countries they were not committing any crime. Their ethical relativism stated they could kill an elderly family member if that person was suffering (mentally, physically, emotionally, etc). They would then eat their brains because they believed they would gain the elderly person’s knowledge. Were they wrong in believing this way?

Are there some people that are pure evil and will kill just to kill? Yes, the Nazi’s did but even they “believed” they were justified in what they did and how they did it.


2. Should everyone have the right to decide which behaviors are acceptable or unacceptable?


As an individual, no. As a tribe/community/society, yes, as long as it conforms to the ideals and beliefs indoctrinated within ethical absolutism. Where it becomes tricky is who determines what is absolutely right or wrong. If you (community) believe in the Bible then you can base absolutism (New Testament specifically) as your guide in what is right and wrong for the common good of ALL members. If you (community) don’t believe in the Bible then you would base your decision on the common good of ALL members through a democratic vote…hopefully.


3. Could variances in the manner in which criminal justice professionals view morals and ethics as either absolute or relative impact day-to-day decision making? Explain your answer.


Absolutely. Because large precincts contain hundreds of personnel you have hundreds of ways people view the same situation. An example would be if several officers raid a home and find an enormous amount of drugs and an even greater amount of money. One officer could think that taking a little of the money would be ok. Another officer could think that taking a little of the drugs and selling it to make money would be ok. Another could think that taking a little money and a little bit of drugs would be ok. And yet another could think that bagging and tagging it all is what needs to be done. What would cause these overwhelming differences in ethical decision making? The manner in which you grew up would definitely play a major factor. What your parents taught you were right or wrong would also play a factor. And what your community established by law that was right or wrong could explain the differences in decision making.


psy 321. 


1. How do emotions based on cognition differ from those based on arousal? Give examples of each.

Emotions based on cognition is the thought of the what and why the emotion is about to take place. An example would be doing your husbands laundry and finding a used condom and the wrapper in his pocket and then you process what you have discovered and the emotion starts to be born. The emotions based on arousal differs because it is giving birth to the physiology affect of the who what and why you are about to experience in the physical. An example of this would be bursting into a panic and calling his phone repeatedly until you reach him and not being able to function until you find out whats going on because the two of you may not use condoms because you are trying for pregnancy. 

2. The following are the five self-presentation strategies discussed in the book in bold, followed by my opinion on whether they are effective or not in normal text.

Goal of ingratiation- creating liking by using flattery or charm.

This is probably one of the two most effective of the five strategies of self-presentation because it both accomplishes gaining status and self esteem.  When people like you, you feel better about yourself as a person.  You also gain status when people like you. 

Goal of intimidation- create fear by being aggressive or showing that you can be aggressive.

Intimidation is not overly effective at raising one's status.  Feeling powerful has the potential to positively affect self esteem, but any status gained by intimidation would surely be superficial.  As they say, nobody likes a bully.

Goal of exemplification- create guilt. You show that you are a better individual then the other person.

Creating guilt may serve as a self esteem booster, but only at the cost of deflating another individual's self esteem.  This may also increase status, but with a negative impact.  This is a much less effective self-presentation strategy than ingratiation.

Goal of supplication- create pity. You indicate to others that you’re helpless and/or needy.

 Helplessness or neediness only goes so far, especially with what we talked about last week and the reciprocal altruism.  If you are constantly asking and taking, society tends to shun you.  Therefore, this would not be an effective means to gain status.  Putting yourself down all the time is certainly not the best way to gain self esteem either.

Goal of self-promotion- create respect. Do so by persuading others that you are competent.

In my opinion, this is the best way to gain status and self esteem.  By proving yourself, you are gaining status the honest way by earning the trust you deserve.  This method also promotes a positive self image in the face of success and competency.

psy 335

1. Select one of the modern research designs for studying daily life discussed by Mehl (2014). Identify its benefits and address whether the method appears to have ecological validity. Explain your rationale.

Daily Diary Method described by Mehl (2014) is a methodology where participants complete a questionnaire about their thoughts, feelings, and behavior of the day at the end of the day. The benefit of this type of research is that it allows the patient to record their self-report that aim to capture the events, reflections, mood, or reflections during the time that it has occurred. Diary methods allow researchers to examine questions that are not amenable in traditional study designs.

Ecological Validity as described by Mehl (2014) the degree to which a study finding has been obtained under conditions that are typical for what happens in everyday life. The daily diary method does have ecological validity. Proponents of the daily diary to the increased ecological validity of the data, which allows an up close examination of the psychological processes in the participant’s daily activities. Because the reports are temporally close to the experience, they also greatly reduce retrospection bias that is associated with usual survey design.


Identify the strengths and limitations of the self-report method.

Limitations: As some researchers may find self-reporting to be a good way to examine a participants day to day activities for evaluation there are some limitations to this method as well. One limitation is that the participants may be feeling to present themselves in ways that may over praise them on their daily productive and social life. This is a particular concern in “high-stakes testing,” that is, situations in which test scores are used to make important decisions about individuals (e.g., when applying for a job) Mehl (2014). Secondly, we as humans have the tendency to overlook our less desirable characteristics and applaud our more positive characteristics. Lastly, self- reporting also allows a participant to gloat more over their social cultural life style in order to appraise themselves more. For example, Mehl (2014) states if you tend to work harder than most of your friends, you will see yourself as someone who is relatively conscientious, even if you are not particularlyconscientious in any absolute sense.

Strengths: The self-reporting approach offers a few advantages for researchers to examine the participant’s results. One, only you can access yourself the best. Only the participant knows what they are feeling and experiencing at the time. Secondly, according to Mehl (2014) asking people to describe themselves is the simplest, easiest, and most cost-effective approach to assessing personality.

Explain the meaning of the terms reliability and validity.

Validity Evidence compares the test/surveys with other measures or outcomes (the criteria) already held to be valid. The following example is used by David Watson (2014); a presumed measure of conscientiousness should be related to academic achievement (such as overall grade point average). 

Reliability is when an experiment/test outcome has the same results on repeated trials. When retesting on several occasions the result could/would change over a period of time.


Using the APA Code of Ethics (Standard 8) address 2 responsibilities of researchers investigating personality.

According to APA Code of Ethics 8.08, one responsibility of psychologists is to provide a prompt opportunity for participants to obtain appropriate information about the nature, results, and conclusions of the research, and they take reasonable steps to correct any misconceptions that participants may have of which the psychologists are aware. If scientific or humane values justify delaying or withholding this information, psychologists take reasonable measures to reduce the risk of harm. When psychologists become aware that research procedures have harmed a participant, they take reasonable steps to minimize the harm.

Another responsibility that is listed by the APA Code of Ethics 8.12; Psychologists take responsibility and credit, including authorship credit, only for work they have actually performed or to which they have substantially contributed. Principal authorship and other publication credits accurately reflect the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their relative status. Mere possession of an institutional position, such as department chair, does not justify authorship credit. Minor contributions to the research or to the writing for publications are acknowledged appropriately, such as in footnotes or in an introductory statement.



Mehl, M. (2014) Conducting Psychology Research in the Real World. Retrieved on August 27, 2015 from

Watson, D. (2014). Personality assessment.  Retrieved August 28, 2015 from

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. ( 2010, June 1). Retrieved on August 29, 2015 from American Psychological Association:


2. 1.) Select one of the modern research designs for studying daily life discussed by Mehl (2014). Identify its benefits and address whether the method appears to have ecological validity. Explain your rationale.

I have selected Mehl’s naturalistic observation methodology as one of the modern research designs he employs for studying daily life. Mehl and his colleagues have developed this methodology which is similar in spirit to the Experience Sample, which is often used to study everyday behavior (i.e., daily social interactions and activities).

The benefits of the naturalistic observation methodology are:

  • Instead of using direct behavioral observation (e.g. video recordings) a portable audio recorder is employed. Rather than following participants, like a detective with a video camera, participants are equipped with a portable audio recorder that is programmed to periodically record snippets of sounds (e.g. 45 seconds every 10 minutes).
  • The participants carry their smartphone app on them as they go about their days and return the recording at the end of the day. The participants report that they quickly grow accustomed to the EAR (Electronic Activated Recorder) and say they soon find themselves behaving as they normally would.
  • The ambient sound recordings can be coded for many things, including participants’ locations (e.g., at work, in a cafe), activities (e.g., watching TV, eating), interactions (e.g., in a group, on the phone), and emotional expressions (e.g., laughing, sighing). The electronic Instrumental music that is gentle, rhythmic, and melodic causes the participants to react to a real world relaxing experience.

The naturalistic observation methodology appears to have ecological validity:

  • Because this method of sampling involves only an audio recorder (a smartphone app for today), it measures what the study or the sample observation is supposed to measure in a real-world setting. The participants reported that they grew accustomed to the recorder and found themselves behaving as they normally would.
  • This study was ecological valid because the behaviors observed and recorded in the study reflects the behaviors that actually occurred in the participants’ real-world settings. 

2.) Identify the strengths and limitations of the self-report method.

  • The strengths of self-reporting are: being able to get clearer information from your source. As long as their is no pathology you should be able to get better information. You also have a better chance of the patient complalance. Plus there is also a good chance the patience is already involved with studying theirselves. Self- reports are also good because you are able to the patient about their beliefs, feelings and or their attitude about a certain situation. Last but not lease a self-report is a good way to get an observation study.
  • The limitations of self-reporting are: there could be a change that some of the answers could be exaggerated. Or some of the answers could be too personal. Also the answer could solely based on how the patient feels at the moment, and that could other the answer of the survey.

3.) Explain the meaning of the terms reliability and validity.

  • The meaning of reliability from my understating is a way that personality psychologist or any psychologist might I add use to measure any type of data from different sources. But with that there are many tools used to measure the data. For example when it comes to measuring a self- report test they might use the split half method to collect the data.
  • The meaning of validity to me seems to that is pretty much there to back up reliability. Which means to support reasonable data.

4.)Using the APA Code of Ethics (Standard 8) address 2 responsibilities of researchers investigating personality.

  • One of the responsibilities that must take place is being able to get the consent to do pretty much everything that takes place when it comes to starting research or recording voices and getting images. Another responsibility that must take place is knowns as debriefing which must happen if there could be harm to the person or just to reduce that harm factor indefinality.


 American Psychological Association (2015). Ethical Principles of Psychologist and Code of Conduct. Retrieved on Aug 28, 2015 from:

Mehl, M. (2014). Conducting Psychology Research in the Real World. Retrieved on August 28,2015 from

Watson, D. (2014). Personality assessment.  Retrieved on Aug 28, 2015 from

Subject English
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