Qualitative Data Analysis
Qualitative Data Analysis- the organization & interpretation of narrative data for purpose of discovering important underlying themes, categories, and patterns of relationships (Polit & Beck, 2012).
- CHALLENGES OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
- Few standardized rules, Work required lots of organization (collecting data, listening to tapes, reading transcripts), Filtering data with balance of conciseness with evidentiary value
- ORGANIZATION- often performed by computer programs by indexing functions to facilitate analysis. Conceptual files- files in which coded excerpts of data relevant to specific categories are placed.
- 3 STEPS OF ANALYSIS DATA
- Step 1: searching for themes or categories that involve patterns in data common and natural variations.
- Metaphors symbolic comparison that can also be used to evoke a visual and symbolic analogy
- Step 2: Validating the thematic analysis
- Quasi-statistics are used to tabulate the frequency in which certain themes are supported by the data. This allows the researcher to disregard null hypothesis.
- Step 3: Weaving thematic strands together into a picture of the phenomenon being studied.
- QUALITATIVE CONTENT ANALYSIS- Refers to the analysis of narrative data content to identify prominent themes and patterns. Data is broken down into smaller units.
- Physical- defined by length, time, size; Syntactical-defined by words, sentences, paragraphs; Categorical-identifying common things; Propositional-divide units based on specific constructions such as proposition or a clause; Thematic- delineates units according to themes.
- METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS: Ethnography, Phenomenology, Grounded Theory
- Ethnography- the study of entire culture researchers looks for patterns in behavior & expression.
- Spradley’s method: 4 levels of data analysis Ex. of this type of research is seen on pg. 565 was used to influence the case managers of a pediatric home care program in Canada in resource allocation decisions (Polit & Beck, 2012).
- Domain-identifying units, Taxonomic-classifying domains,Componential-comparing and contrasting domains, Theme-uncovering cultural themes.
- Phenomenology-focuses on people’s subjective experiences & interpretations of the world. (lived experiences) that are rearranged into categories and compared.
- Three most common methods: Colaizzi, Giorgi, Van Kaam. See table 23.1 pg. 566 (Polit & Beck, 2012)
Colaizzi- only method that calls for validation of results by returning to study participants. Giorgi- analysis relies solely on researcher. Van Kaam- requires that intersubjective agreement be reached with expert judges. Ex. Colaizzi pg. 567 in which internet interviews addressed common themes relating to breastfeeding and traumatic births (Polit & Beck, 2012).
- Other phenomenology methods used: Van Manen & Heideggerian Hermenuetics
- Van Manen-. This method uses three approaches to populate themes from participants’ description of their experiences. Holistic- viewing text as a whole to capture meaning. Selective-pulling out key statements and phrases, Detailed- analyzing every sentence. Ex. pg. 568 in which cystic fibrosis was researched through the eyes of the children, young adults, and the parents (Polit & Beck, 2012).
- Heideggerian Hermeneutics: draws on interpretation of lived experiences & determined by 2 processes Constructive Pattern & Paradigm Case.
- Constructive pattern-expresses the relationship among relational theme. Seven stages of process.
- Paradigm cases-strong instances of being in the world consists of three interrelated processes.
- Grounded- Draws on interpretive phenomenology which uses the constant comparative method that identifies characteristics in one piece of data and compares them to another to compare similarity.
- 3 approaches Glaser and Strauss, Strauss and Corbin, Constructivist.
- Glaser and Strauss: constant comparison, Hypothesis is the focus instead of testing theory; basic problem must emerge from data. Ex. pg. 572 in which the researcher looked at mothers of twins and resuming life after birth (Polit & Beck, 2012)
- Strauss and Corbin: This approach stresses that the research is only one of four possible sources of a research problem. Uses two types of coding open and axial. Constructive- constructed from shared experiences and relationships between participants and the researcher. Coding is the basis and backbone of analysis. Ex. pg. 574 in which this method was used to study the processes of hospital-based home care for patients in Taiwan that suffered from severe mental illness.
- Summary: Qualitative data analysis is the process in which we move from the raw data that have been collected as part of the research study and use it to provide explanations, understanding, and interpretation of the phenomena.
Polit, D., & Beck, C. (2012). In Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (9th ed., pp. 556-581). Philadelphia: Lippincot Williams & Wilkins.
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