Project #77402 - homework

Please use the answer sheet provided, bring it up in Word, whatever if you can't use notepad or any .txt files. Only letter answers for the multiple-choice questions (and not the description to their right). Answer "essay" questions as completely as you can. 

1.The ________ circuit is between the heart and lungs.

2.The endocardium of the heart
     A)contracts to develop a force.
     B)is part of the conduction system.
     C)lines the inside of the chambers.
     D)prevents the backflow of blood.
     E)transports blood through the chambers.

3.The SA node is located in the wall of the
     B)left atrium.
     C)left ventricle.
     D)right atrium.
     E)right ventricle.

4.The QRS wave of the ECG represents
     A)atrial contraction.
     B)atrial relaxation.
     C)firing of the SA node.
     D)ventricular contraction.
     E)ventricular relaxation.

5.The most extensive, branching blood vessels are the

6.Arteries consist of ________ different layers.

7.A typical diastolic pressure is about

8.Valves are found in the
     A)arteries and arterioles.
     B)arterioles and capillaries.
     C)heart and veins.
     D)heart and capillaries.
     E)veins and arterioles.

9.The lymphatic system is functionally related to the ________ systems.
     A)circulatory and immune
     B)circulatory and respiratory
     C)digestive and immune
     D)digestive and urinary
     E)respiratory and urinary

10.True or False? The myocardium is the thinnest layer of the heart. 

11.True or False? The inferior vena cava returns blood to the right atrium. 

12.The ________ is the muscular layer of the heart.

13.After the SA node, the ________ is the next part of the conduction system to send a signal.

14.Arteries subdivide into _______ to send blood to the capillaries.

15.Lymph ________ pick up lymph at the body cells.

16.Provide a function for each of the following:
A. bicuspid valve
B. Purkinje fibers

Match the following:

17. - 19.Match each term on the left to an appropriate association on the right.

1. ___ capillary         A. in the right atrial wall
2. ___ pulmonary vein     B. sends blood to the lungs
3. ___ sinoatrial node     C. sends blood to left atrium
4. ___ superior vena cava     D. largest artery in the body
5. ___ pulmonary artery     E. exchange vessel
6. ___ aorta         F. sends blood to right atrium         
The answer should be in the form "17.-18. 1.a, 2.b, 3.d, 4.g etc don't change the numbering, example  16.-19. 1.a, 2.b, etc.

20.The plasma of the blood is about ________ percent water.

21.Fibrinogen is a blood protein that functions for
     A)blood clotting.
     D)transporting gases.
     E)transporting ions.

22.Albumins and globulins are types of plasma

23.Erythropoietin is produced by the
     A)bone marrow.
     D)small intestine.

24.The most abundant white blood cell is the

25.Which protein traps RBCs to form a clot?

26.True or False? The albumins specifically fight infection in the body. 

27.True or False?  There is a decrease in the flexibility of RBCs with the development of sickle cell anemia. 

28.The ______ and _______ are the organs that remove worn-out red blood cells.

29.Erythropoietin stimulates the stem cells in ________ bone marrow.

Match the following:

28. -29. Match each term on the left to an appropriate association on the right.

1. _____ transport gases     A. erythrocytes
2. _____ neutrophil         B. leukocytes
3. _____ contain hemoglobin     C. plasma
4. _____ initiate blood clotting    D. thrombocytes
5. _____ liquid part of the blood      
as in 17.-19.
30.Emphysema mainly affects the ________ of the lungs.

31.The inner walls of the bronchus have
     A)mucous membranes with cilia.
     B)mucous membranes without cilia.
     C)serous membranes with cilia.
     D)serous membranes without cilia.
     E)synovial membranes with cilia.

32.The two most abundant gases of inhaled air are
     A)carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
     B)carbon dioxide and oxygen.
     C)carbon monoxide and nitrogen.
     D)nitrogen and oxygen.
     E)nitrogen and sulfur dioxide.

33.Carbonic anhydrase is located in the
     A)alveolar cells.
     B)epithelial cells.
     E)red blood cells.

34.Pulmonary veins return blood to the ________ of the heart.
     A)conduction system
     B)left atrium
     C)left ventricle
     D)right atrium
     E)right ventricle

35.The breathing center is located in the

36.True or False? The bronchiole is a smaller structure than a bronchus. 

37.True or False? The right and left bronchus are connected to the pharynx. 

38.True or False? Type I alveolar cells produce surfactant. 

39.True or False? Blood with a low oxygen concentration is transported from the right side of the heart to the lungs. 

40.True or False? Asthma reduces the inspiratory reserve volume. 

41.An olfactory _________ is in the roof of the nasal cavity.

42.The contraction of the diaphragm increases the size of the ________ cavity.

43.What advantages promote gas transport through the walls of the alveoli?

Match the following:

44.- 46. Match each term to an appropriate association.

1. ____ alveoli    A. first place where air is inhaled
2. ____ capillary    B. splits at its base into bronchi
3. ____ diaphragm    C. muscle of respiration
4. ____ larynx     D. microscopic blood vessel
5. ____ nose     E. 300 million per pair of lungs
6. ____ trachea     F. covered at the top by the epiglotti     

47. These branching structures carry information toward the cell body of a neuron.
      a. synapses
      b. axons
      c. dendrites
      d. nodes of Ranvier

48. What is the name of the space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of a second neuron?
      a. vesicle
      b. cell body
      c. synapse
      d. node of Ranvier

49. The frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes form the
      a. brain stem.
      b. cerebrum.
      c. cerebellum.
      d. reticular formation.

50. The primary somatosensory area and the primary motor area are separated by
      a. Broca’s area.
      b. the central sulcus.
      c. the pia mater.
      d. the longitudinal fissure.

51. There are four major areas of the brain: the cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, and the
      a. hypothalamus.
      b. medulla oblongata.
      c. limbic system.
      d. cerebellum.

52. The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata are referred to as the
      a. diencephalons.
      b. brain stem.
      c. limbic system.
      d. emotional brain.

53. Endorphins are
      a. natural morphine-like substances that can reduce anxiety and induce a sense of well-being.
      b. energy sources much like ATP.
      c. secreted by the choroid plexus and circulated within the subarachnoid space.
      d. waste products generated by depolarizing neurons.

54. The surface of the cerebrum is folded into elevations that resemble speed bumps; these speed bumps are called
      a. fissures.
      b. sulci.
      c. foramen.
      d. convolutions, or gyri.

55. The depression between the convolutions of the cerebrum is called a
      a. pons.
      b. gyrus.
      c. sulcus.
      d. corpus callosum.

56. The medulla oblongata descends as the
      a. diencephalons.
      b. hypothalamus.
      c. cerebellum.
      d. spinal cord.

57. Which of the following best describes the arachnoid mater?
      a. limbic system
      b. meninges
      c. blood-brain barrier
      d. cranium

58. The corpus callosum
      a. connects the right and left hemispheres.
      b. connects the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland.
      c. lines the cerebral ventricles.
      d. connects the brain stem to the cerebellum.

59. In which cerebral lobe is Broca’s area located?
      a. parietal
      b. occipital
      c. frontal
      d. temporal

60. The temporal lobe
      a. is a brainstem structure.
      b. is a cerebellar structure.
      c. contains the primary auditory cortex.
      d. is a large mass of white matter that joins the right and left cerebral hemispheres.

61. The occipital lobe
      a. is a brain stem structure.
      b. performs the “executive” functions.
      c. is called the vital center.
      d. contains the primary visual cortex.

62. Which of the following is located within the subarachnoid space?
      a. blood
      b. lymph
      c. cerebrospinal fluid
      d. cytoplasm

63. Which of the following is the type of nervous tissue that conducts a nerve impulse?
      a. astrocyte
      b. neuroglia
      c. neuron
      d. ependymal cell

64. Which of the following is most related to “saltatory conduction”?
      a. dendrites
      b. choroid plexus
      c. nodes of Ranvier
      d. astrocytes

65. What makes white matter “white”?
      a. cell bodies
      b. neurotransmitters
      c. synapses
      d. myelin sheath

66. Which of the following is the convolution located on the frontal lobe just anterior to the central sulcus?
      a. Broca’s area
      b. primary motor area
      c. somatosensory area
      d. visual cortex

67. This structure is part of the diencephalon; it regulates the anterior pituitary gland, water balance, appetite, body temperature, and the autonomic nervous system.
      a. cerebellum
      b. pons
      c. medulla oblongata
      d. hypothalamus

68. Which of the following is most characteristic of the parasympathetic nervous system?
      a. adrenergic
      b. norepinephrine
      c. fight or flight
      d. feed and breed

69. Which of the following is not an effector organ for the autonomic nerves?
      a. skeletal muscle
      b. visceral smooth muscle
      c. glands
      d. cardiac muscle

70. What is the name of the specialized area of a sensory neuron that detects a specific stimulus?
      a. tract
      b. receptor
      c. dorsal root
      d. node of Ranvier

71. Photoreceptors detect
      a. heat.
      b. acd.
      c. light.
      d. tissue distortion.

72. Olfaction refers to the sense of
      a. vision.
      b. taste.
      c. smell.
      d. equilibrium.

73. The gustatory sensation is most related to the
      a. eighth cranial nerve.
      b. rods and cones.
      c. organ of Corti.
      d. tastebuds.

74. A ________ connects a muscle to a bone.

75. _________ are small protrusions on the surface of the tongue.

76. The ________ is a fluid that provides nutrients for the cornea and lens.

77. The bones, joints, and muscles make up about _________ percent of human body weight.
        A) 10 to 20
        B) 15 to 20
        C) 25 to 30
        D) 30 to 40
        E) 50 to 60

78. Select the incorrect association.
        A) periosteum/covering
        B) rib cage/axial
        C) skull/axial
        D) vertebral column/appendicular
        E) yellow marrow/fat

79. Joints are classified by
        A) the amount of osteocytes present.
        B) the degree of movement they permit.
        C) their location.
        D) their relationship to tendons and ligaments.
        E) their size and shape.

80. The ends of bones at a synovial joint are covered with ________ cartilage.
        A) elastic
        B) fibrous
        C) hyaline
        D) muscular
        E) nonarticulating

81. Select the incorrect characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis.
        A) autoimmune disease
        B) bones can be dislocated
        C) synovial membrane inflamed
        D) synovial membrane thickens
        E) underlying bone not affected

82. The release of the hormone ________ increases the concentration of calcium in the blood.
        A) aldosterone
        B) calcitonin
        C) glucagon
        D) PTH
        E) TH

83. The function of the osteoclast is to
        A) build new bone.
        B) decrease bloodflow to bone.
        C) increase bloodflow to bone.
        D) tear down bone.
        E) transport bone.

84. Which hormone maintains bone?
        A) ACTH
        B) ADH
        C) estrogen
        D) glucagon
        E) testosterone

85. Flexion of the arm means to _________ the arm.
        A) bend
        B) immobilize
        C) injure
        D) rotate
        E) straighten

86. Actin is a __1__ molecule.  Myosin is a __2__ molecule.
        A) 1 - carbohydrate, 2 - carbohydrate
        B) 1 - carbohydrate, 2 - lipid
        C) 1 - lipid, 2 - protein
        D) 1 - protein, 2 - protein
        E) 1 - steroid, 2 - nonsteroid

87. Creatine phosphate is a(n) ________ for muscles.
        A) antibacterial agent
        B) contractile protein
        C) oxygen carrier
        D) source of energy
        E) type of antibody

88. By wave summation, simple twitches
        A) add together.
        B) cancel each other.
        C) lead to muscle injury.
        D) produce tonus.
        E) work against each other.

89. True or False? Tendons attach bone to bone. 
        A) True
        B) False

90. True or False? The epiphyses are the ends of a long bone. 
        A) True
        B) False

91. True or False? Usually ligaments are fairly inflexible. 
        A) True
        B) False

92. True or False? The ball-and-socket joint is a synovial joint. 
        A) True
        B) False

93. True or False? The release of PTH stimulates osteoclast activity. 
        A) True
        B) False

94. True or False? Osteoblasts convert a callus to bone. 
        A) True
        B) False

95. True or False? Calcium is stored in the smooth ER of muscle cells. 
        A) True
        B) False

96. The ________ is the connective tissue covering of a bone.

97. The synovial joint has ________ cartilage that facilitates movement.

98. During development, hyaline cartilage converts to bone by _________ ossification.

99.-102. Essay: How do skeletal muscles work in opposing pairs to produce a body motion?

103. Grave's disease develops from a hormonal imbalance of the ________ gland.
        A) adrenal
        B) parathyroid
        C) pituitary
        D) renal
        E) thyroid

104. Glucagon signals the __1__ to stimulate the breakdown of__2__.
        A) 1 - brain, 2 - insulin
        B) 1 - brain, 2 - glycogen
        C) 1 - kidney, 2 - proteins
        D) 1 - liver, 2 - glucose
        E) 1 - liver, 2 - glycogen

105. Cortisol is a
        A) carbohydrate.
        B) ion.
        C) lipid.
        D) nucleic acid.
        E) steroid.

106. The anterior pituitary produces _________ protein and polypeptide hormones.
        A) 2
        B) 5
        C) 7
        D) 10
        E) 12

107. The growth hormone acts mainly on
        A) bones and muscles.
        B) endocrine glands.
        C) motor and sensory neurons.
        D) the hypothalamus.
        E) the kidney.

108. A deficiency of ADH produces
        A) diabetes insipidus.
        B) diabetes mellitus.
        C) hyperthyroidism.
        D) hypoglycemia.
        E) water retention.

109. Oxytocin is secreted by the
        A) adrenal cortex.
        B) anterior pituitary.
        C) pancreas.
        D) posterior pituitary.
        E) thyroid.

110. Exophthalamos means
        A) an enlarged thyroid gland.
        B) bulging eyes.
        C) high metabolic rate.
        D) low blood sugar.
        E) sodium deficiency.

111. Diabetes mellitus involves a disorder of the
        A) brain.
        B) kidney.
        C) pancreas.
        D) pituitary.
        E) spleen.

112. True or False? The endocrine glands are the ductless glands. 
        A) True
        B) False

113. True or False? Positive feedback loops are common in endocrine function. 
        A) True
        B) False

114. True or False? The growth hormone is a protein hormone. 
        A) True
        B) False

115. True or False? Hypothyroidism is excess thyroid activity. 
        A) True
        B) False

116. -120. Essay: What are the differences in control by the nervous and endocrine systems, what are the similarities.?

Subject Science
Due By (Pacific Time) 07/26/2015 05:35 pm
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