Project #65992 - sports Mid-term in

Hello I recently did a mid-term exam , I have already answered the questions , I just need in - text citations  for each answer and references for each question.  As you can see below I have my questions already answered just need help with the citations and referencing portion.







Module 1 

1. Instead of trying to define “sport,” some scholars focus their attention on studying what is counted as a sport in society and whose sports count the most. What is the advantage of taking this approach to defining sports when studying sports in society? 



The advantage of taking the alternative approach to defining sport is that it gives way to the provision of a range of analysis that often digs deep into the socio-cultural contexts in which different people propose ideas and beliefs about sports. As opposed to giving a precise definition, such an alternative approach recognizes that the definition of sports may vary depending on who is involved, where a person is, and when the definition is sought. It recognizes that every different people have different ways in which they look at sports. 

2. Some sociologists study sports because sports are tied closely to cultural ideology in society. Explain what is meant by “ideology “and then show how sports are related to ideas about gender, including dominant ideas about masculinity and femininity. 



Ideology is a system of ideals that individuals apply in attempts to define and make sense of nature and their experiencesIdeologies form an important part of the society and culture as they influence our actions, feelings and viewpoints. As a social construction in the society, sports is influenced by ideologies in which it is organized according to people’s beliefs about race, social class, gender among others. Gender ideology are beliefs about femininity, masculinity and influence sports in the sense that it is used when people create, play and give meaning to sport.






Module 2 

1. The growth and popularity of organized youth sports is related to general changes in society and in the ways families are defined and organized. What characteristics of culture and family life today are associated with the current popularity of organized youth sports? In addition to using course material, use examples from your own experience or the experiences of your friends to illustrate these characteristics. 


In the society and within families, social attitudes have changed and parents, teachers and even religious leaders now recognize that sports can be used to unite and bring people together. For instance, towards the end of last year, the youth leader in our local church organized sports to attract youths to a mentorship workshop that was sponsored by the church. In addition to the changed attitudes, exposure to media has also influenced the growth and popularity of organized sports. Nowadays many sports events are broadcasted live on televisions and families are able to watch. Such a factor has sparked interest among individuals to organize their own events. Certain views have also changed especially with regards to treating sports as a potential career for youths. 

2. One of your father’s friends is known for his arguments against taxes. He frequently calls for an elimination of tax-supported programs. When he discovers you are taking a course in the sociology of sport, he says that he thinks all youth sport programs should be privatized and organized to emphasize the development of athletic excellence. Would you agree or disagree with him? Use course material and your own experience to support your position. 


I disagree with him. Even though privatization of sports is a viable way for budgets cutsit has certain disadvantages that come with it. There are youths who may not be able to afford to pay the charges (especially from low income families) so as to involve in sports programs. Such youths are then denied of the opportunity to use their talents. Even without privatization, athletic excellence can be achieved through commitment and effective management. Additionally, there are chances that privatization of sports programs may lead to cases of economic, racial and ethnic segregation. 

6. Coaching education programs are seen by some people as a sure way to improve organized sport programs for children. You are working for a Parks and Recreation Department in a large city, and you have been asked to outline the features of a coaching education program that will bring about needed changes in youth sports. Discuss what issues you consider to be important as you put together the outline.


To bring change, the programme should focus more on experimental learning activities as opposed to lecture-oriented formal education. Opportunities for coaches to share their experiences with peers should also be emphasized, as should the use of technology. Behavioural guidelines that facilitate the relationship between the coaches and the children they train are highly important, just as are emphasis on talent development and a paradigm shift from short to long-term athletic growth. Attention should also be given to essential movement skills. 

Module 3 

2. You are a member of an urban school board. The board has just been presented with data showing that varsity athletes in the 15 high schools in your district receive higher grades than non-athletes. A group of parents is using the data to request more funds for interscholastic sports in the district. What are the questions you would ask about the data, and why would you ask them?


The questions I would raise regarding the data relate to its accuracy, validity and reliability. Other questions I would ask relate to the purpose of the study. It would be important to ask such questions in order to determine whether such data can be used to change the policy of the school. I would also ask whether other factors (such as adequate learning facilities, among others) that would influence students’ performance have been considered in the study. 

Establishing the validity, accuracy and reliability is important because sometimes individuals may undertake studies for their own vested interests. 

3. One of the resources in the course makes the point that it is difficult to make generalizations about interscholastic sports and the experiences of young people who play sports. What is the basis for this point and do you agree with it? Explain why you do or do not.


I agree that it is indeed difficult to make such generalizations. The basis for this point is that many people have proposed beneficial experiences related to interscholastic sports while others have mentioned it as a distraction from education. The reason I agree that such generalizations are difficult to make is because young people who engage in sports are affected differently by such sports. In addition, generalizations may ignore the fact the young people hail from different backgrounds and may be under influence of various factors that relate to the society and family structures and organization.


Module 4

1. The “race logic” that underlies dominant racial ideology in the U.S. has had a powerful impact on the way people think about potential and achievement. How has race logic influenced what has happened in the world of sports when it comes to opportunities to participate and the way people explain the achievements of athletes?


 Racial has influenced sports both in the US and the world at large. Individuals have been denied certain opportunities because of their skin color. Many people have continued to believe that more some races are superior and have more potential to succeed than others and hence should have more opportunities than others. An example is the way Tiger Woods had difficulties in using certain golf courses only because of the belief that such opportunities could only be enjoyed by the white-skinned people. White people have been given more opportunities to participate in sports as compared to other races. White skinned people have been considered to be successful because of their color. 

2. After you and some friends watch the men’s semi-final matches during the Wimbledon Tennis Championships, one of your friends says, “I wonder why there are so few Black tennis players - it must be something biological.” You tell your friend that there are a number of social and cultural explanations for why there are so few Black tennis players. He asks you to name four of them. What would you say in return?


I would say that it is not only biological but also affected by socio-cultural factors. First, tennis has always been perceived as a white man game in in which it is dominated by white people. Also, tennis does not have a history in the black culture where athletic games have been preferred. The social status is also a factor that contributes to such a trend. Tennis is considered a game for the rich and not for the poor especially due to its expensive nature in equipment and other requirements. The fact that most black come from low-medium income families explain why most of them do not play tennis. 


Module 5

1. Feminist cultural critic Varda Burstyn has argued that the hyper masculinity exhibited in certain power and performance sports reaffirms a gender ideology based on the belief that men are naturally superior to women. How does she support her argument? Do you agree or disagree with it? Provide examples to support your agreement or disagreement

Burstyn supports her argument by stating that just as women and subordinated masculinities have always been viewed as feminized, the participation and competitive aspirations of “inferior” men and women in sports other than the power sports (other types of physical dexterity) are undervalued and often considered second-rate. Her argument is correct. This is because historically, the violent, aggressive and muscular image of a man (such as the images of Mike Tyson, James Bond and Arnold Schwarzenegger) – the exemplification of manhood - has always been used to typify and promote sports as well as other events. This both exemplifies and encourages the exaltation of manhood. 

3. Representatives from the Women’s Sport Foundation and the National Association for Girls and Women in Sports have recently noted that although there has been significant progress in connection with equity issues, there is still a long way to go. Do you feel this is an accurate assessment of the past and present? Give examples supporting your agreement or disagreement with this assessment.

It is true that substantial progress has been made with regards to equity. Participation of women in sports has been on the rise as seen in the rise in female teams, as well as the attention given to female sports and the income accruing from the same. In 2012, for example, 21 college women basketball teams grossed more than the male teams in the same colleges. More, however, still needs to be done. For one, a huge number of female coaches are losing their positions to male ones, and female coaches still earn less than male ones. Further, the sexist belief that male sports are better and more entertaining than the female ones is still persistent leading to less opportunities, facilities and media coverage for female sports. 


4. A woman has just been hired as the new coach of the women’s basketball team at your college/university. A young man in your dorm says that the male applicants for the job never had a chance because the athletic director and the search committee wanted to hire a woman. His inference is that men are not being treated fairly today in the coaching job market. In light of the course material and your personal experiences, how would you respond to this young man? Would you agree or disagree with him? Explain your position, and provide data to support your agreement or disagreement.

His inference is not justified. While in this case the committee may have wanted a female coach as form of affirmative action, the overall picture is that female coaches are treated worse than their male counterparts. Between 1972 and 2014, for example, the percentage of women working as head coaches for female teams reduced from 90 to 42.6 percent. Similarly, only 3.6 percent of head-coach positions in men’s NCAA sports were held by women in 2011. The unfair treatment of women in the coaching job market is further aggravated by the fact that female coaches earn much less than the male ones (often earning less than half of what male coaches earn). 


Module 6

2. After reading the material on deviant over-conformity, use your own experience (as an athlete, spectator, or friend of an athlete) to identify a form of deviant over-conformity in sports. Explain the origins of the deviance and a course of action a coach might take to control this form of deviance among his/her athletes. 


One form common form of deviant over-conformity is the use of performance- enhancing substances for competitive advantage.The use of performance-enhancing drugs can be traced back since the beginning of Olympic Games from 776 to 393 BCHowever, it began to be common in 1889 when Pud Galvin of the Pittsburgh Alleghenys used the elixir and recorded a win.Thereafter, the use of such drugs became rampant in American Sports. One action that coaches can use as a control of the use of substances is by employing alternative ways of enhancing performance such as altitude training for athletes.


3. You are giving expert testimony to a President’s Council on Drug Control in Sports. The council members want to know why substance use among athletes is widespread and whether they should sponsor a new drug testing agency to conduct tests in an effort to eliminate “doping” of all kinds in all competitive sports. What is your testimony? Should they test? Why or why not? Explain your response.


The widespread use of performance-enhancing substances among athletes is attributable to the fact that most athletes are more than ever determined to excel in their athletic careers by winning such, they are doing all it takes to enhance their performance. Today, even coaches are willing to administer drugs to their teams so as to win competitions. Athlete should test for drugs. Testing for drugs will act as a deterrent to further use of such substances especially when athletes are made aware of the consequences of testing positive for certain substances. 


4. As a new worker in a juvenile treatment center, you have been asked to design a sport-participation program for delinquent adolescents. Your supervisor says all the boys in the program measure high in aggressiveness, and he wants you to organize a “nonaggressive” sport experience for them. You suggest a traditional Tae Kwon Do program, and he asks you why you think a martial art could ever lead to decreases in delinquency rates. How would you defend your suggestion?


Incorporating martial arts in sports programs among juvenile offenders is helpful in reducing impulsiveness, aggression, misconducts and resistance to rules. It is so because martial arts emphasize on personal discipline and control of oneself. Also, it requires attention, commitment and encourages individuals to be mindful of their actions and thoughts. Additionally martial arts students give useful teachings on how to handle stressful situations. Such ideals of martial arts play an important role in reducing crime rates among juveniles. 















Alaranta, A., Alaranta, H., & Helenius, I. (2008). Use of Prescription Drugs in Athletes. Sports Medicine38(6), 449-463. doi:10.2165/00007256-200838060-00002

Burstyn, V. (2000). The rites of men. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Carter, S., Steele, S., Sowell, T., & Goldwin, R. (1991). The Logic of Racial Preferences. Transition, (51), 158. doi:10.2307/2935085

Drugs, Recreational Drug Use and Attitudes Towards Doping of High School Athletes. (2004). International Journal Of Sports Medicine25(2), 133-138. doi:10.1055/s-2004-819946

Mitchell, D., & Mitchell, D. (2000). Martial arts. New York: DK Pub.

Wenner, L. (1989). Media, sports, & society. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Witmer, S. (2012). Sports and society. Chicago: Heinemann Library.

Yadav, S. (2010). Sports sociology in different communities. British Journal Of Sports Medicine44(Suppl_1), i75-i76. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.078725.249


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