Project #52845 - **Urgent**Systems Approach to Organizational Change

Due tonight t 10:30 pm Central Standard Time promptly.

I have an assignment that’s due in a few hours and was wondering if someone could take a look at it for me? The assignments I need done are units 4&5. Both discussion questions, 2 classmate responses for EACH unit, and 6 to 7 questions per unit. There is no word count for any portions of the assignment, however everything will need to be original work and from personal experience. You can take a look at my unit 2&3 to get a feel of the job I do personally to help complete this assignment as the work will need to simulate and feed off unit 2&3 works (attached in word format). So please if you're willing to take a look at unit 4&5 for me and willing to do it let me know. The class is a Business class and the class name is Systems Approach to Organizational Change Thanks in advance. Assignment is very, very easy and simple, I’m just unable to complete it because of having to juggle a lot on my plate right now.


Unit 4 Attend:

Earlier in the course, we discussed organizational interconnectedness as it specifically relates to the structure. In this unit, we’ll closely examine the organizational system with a significant focus on the importance of the ‘fit’ between the structure and the system. As you may recall, we defined the structure as the deliberate and specific arrangement of various segments within the organization and the relationships governing their interactions / behavior. We also defined the System as the sum total of all work processes needed to accomplish the goals and objectives as determined by the organizational mission.

Let’s look at the human body as an example of an organization at work. There are many systems working together within the human body.  We have the digestive system, the respiratory system, the nervous system, and the circulatory system…..  You can see how that all of the various bones are connected together to form the skeletal system which ultimately becomes the structure for the human body to insure that all of other systems are protected and in place. We must know the functions of all of the systems to know the design of the structure. All of these systems have their own agendas, responsibilities and functions… However, they are all working together to ensure that we are operating properly as one body. Therefore they are interconnected with one another and interdependent in that if one systems is not operating properly, it can affect the functions of other systems and the total operation of the human body. The key here is to understand that all of these systems are interdependently working together toward the mission of the proper and healthy operation of the human body. The structure where the specific body parts are arranged to interact and support each other is specifically designed to support the overall attainment of a healthy human life. Consider that the skull bone is stronger than the rib bones because of the nature of the organ it supports. The legs are built to be longer and stronger than the arms since the main functions of legs is to carry the rest of the body while speed and flexibility is a higher priority for the arms’ overall functionality. In short, the structure or how the human body is arranged or life. Consider that the skull bone is stronger than the rib bones because of the nature of the organ it supports. The legs are built to be longer and stronger than the arms since the main functions of legs is to carry the rest of the body while speed and flexibility is a higher priority for the arms’ overall functionality. In short, the structure or how the human body is arranged or aligned primarily deals with are creating effective support mechanism for the systems to operate.  

First, let’s look at the mission component of the system: The mission is the reason for the existence of any organization. The mission statement is what is used to communicate that purpose to its members. The statement should answer the question of what are we about as an organization and why are we in business. It is also common for such a statement to indicate the preferred means of fulfilling the mission.    

While the mission statement is what sets ideal destination and the general direction for the organization, the goals serve as the primary routes to reaching that destination. By its core nature, the mission is usually a formidable undertaking that must be broken in segments. The goals are what transform the general and often conceptual mission statement into practical and attainable realities. 

Next, each goal is further broken into smaller goals or objectives. Finally, objectives or sub objectives are defined as processes that are manifested in sequential steps. Specific work processes are then assigned to various individuals for completion. And that is the most visible connection between steps within work processes and the structural human elements whose main role is to execute or perform needed work processes.   

Let’s recap by looking at the big picture and how those elements fit together.   The mission states the organizational purpose and why the organization exists.  The mission is divided into major goals.  Goals are further broken into objectives and sub-objectives.  Objectives are the accomplishments that must occur in order for goals to be met. Sub-objectives serve the same role for objectives. In order for an objective to be met, usually there are several activities that must be successfully completed. Work processes are specially designed to accomplish each objective. All of the transactions within work processes combined form the system of the organization.  Various processes are supp -objectives.  Objectives are the accomplishments that must occur in order for goals to be met. Sub-objectives serve the same role for objectives. In order for an objective to be met, usually there are several activities that must be successfully completed. Work processes are specially designed to accomplish each objective. All of the transactions within work processes combined form the system of the organization.  Various processes are supported by human resources and other segments that make up the organizational structure.    

Let’s consider an example. Say you inherited a car dealership and you wanted to grow - so you formulate a new mission statement to say “our mission is to become the leading automobile dealership in the Southeast.” The statement is clear and should be effective in communicating to all employees what direction the company is going in.  

Now let’s go forward and determine the major organizational goals.   CLICK Expanding geographically allows you to reach additional customers. If you add more locations, you are increasing sales volume and that is consistent with becoming the leading dealership. So, additional locations in other towns or other parts of town makes sense.   CLICK Next, giving providing choices for customers increase the chances of a sale. So, try to add more brands. Say you are currently selling Toyotas, add Lexus and Land Rovers.   CLICK Finally, you would need to improve the effectiveness of your sales force. So, adding better sales people or increasing the effectiveness of your current staff would be a step in the right direction. Once again, the 3 major goals are consistent with the overall mission of your organization.    


                                   Zooming in on the specific goal of geographic expansion, an objective may be to add a new location in Alabama and another in Georgia this year. Adding new locations makes sense and is once again, consistent with the geographic expansion goal. An example of a sub-objective for a geographic expansion to identify the most promising areas in Alabama.  Similarly- adding Lexus and Land Rover as additional product lines would be consistent with the expansion of model offerings.   Finally, offering higher salaries and more opportunities for greater bonuses is likely to attract better salespeople. And, that is once again, consistent with the third major goal of the organization.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

     The final connecting point is the manifestation of objectives into processes. Work processes are essentially sequential steps of work activities that aim to accomplish a specific objective.   Let’s take the process if improving the recruiting process that if effectively executed should help us improve the talent level of our sales force. The steps here may consist of improving our advertising campaign. Specifically,  1. Hire an advertising agency  2. Increase advertising budgets 3. Improve benefit package 4. Enhance training effectiveness  5. And whatever other steps that can help accomplish this objective.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

     To look at the bigger picture….  Every organization has several major goals identified that are key components in meeting the mission of the organization. Let’s say that one is ‘to attract the best employees’. This goal is made up of smaller components (objectives) that are consistent with that goal. Here, better recruiting, higher salaries, better training are consistent and effective objectives with such goal.

      While the processes for each objective vary in the number of steps depending on the nature of the objective, all objectives are accomplished by successfully completing the sequential steps making up those processes

All of the goals, objectives, and work processes are interdependent with one another and are working together toward meeting the mission of the organization.  Here, in addition to attracting better talents, adding new locations and newer models improve the choice for our customers and make up other major components of our system increasing the chances that we would become the leading automobile dealer in our region.   Now you can imagine a paradigm of your own organizational system as a building where the marquee is your mission statement, the walls are supported by pillars or (goals). Each goal and objective are made up of specific work activities that make up the building blocks of the organizational system. The ideal scenario here is have each employee understanding and accepting her/his role in the overall system and realizing how each step performed by each employee directly influence the overall success of the organization.       

The actual homework Assignment Unit 4. 

            We now shift to a prescriptive phase by examining the critical components of our own chosen organization. Locate the mission statement for your organization and write it in the allotted space on the form. Next, identify the major organizational goals and list them as they appear in your employee handbook or other organizational publications. Finally, narrow your focus to your own department, here list the major objectives for your department and identify the various processes you and your teammates perform to accomplish those objectives.


1.       Macro System Analysis Form





Mission/Vision Statement:


3.     State three Top Organizational Goals that you would want to achive within your company:

4.     Departmental Objectives & Processes:

Objective I:

5.    Objective II:

6.     Objective III:





Discussion question for unit 4:

Discuss how the mission of your organization affects its system and structure? Specifically, address whether the objectives of your department are consistent with the overall goals and mission of the organization.


Students discussion response that you will need to provide a response to:


Our mission statement says “quality is the key to customer satisfaction; we will achieve customer satisfaction by controlling cost delivery and waste.”  I feel we have a solid mission statement as it describes our objectives and provides an outline on how to achieve our goals.  Quality is something we take seriously and we know that if our product is not superior to our competitor’s quality, then we will lose customers.   We have quality technicians throughout our factory following product and processes from inception to final product being shipped.  We conduct tests on our product to ensure we are producing high quality goods.  In addition, we buy competitors’ products to run comparison tests against our product.  While no organization is perfect in everything they do to support their mission statement, I feel we do a good job of fulfilling our mission on a daily basis. 



Systems -n- Practice. (2007). 2nd ed. Nassar S. Nassar, Ph.D.



The mission statement of my organization is the foundation of our system structure. Part of our mission statement is to provide top quality services and to administer the laws fairly.  This section of our mission statement is not taken lightly and because of it we are held to a higher standard. Each quarter we are evaluated individually and as a department. We're constantly developing new ideas to ensure that we're providing our clients with the best service. As an organization we have assured that our clients     are provided the most up-to-date information concerning any laws that may have been changed or altered. During our peak season the organization goes so as to provide free legal assistant and volunteers that will assist with filing any documentation needed. The organization efforts have been relentless and will continue as the clients needs changes.   




Unit 5 Attend:

The term equifinality is derived from the terms equal and final outcomes and it simply refers to the notion that there are different ways to reach final outcomes that are equally effective. From the context of organizational performance, the essence of equifinality lies in the realization that multiple means exist to accomplish the desired end result. As the old saying went: All roads lead to Rome. However, some roads are smoother, straighter, and shorter than others. From a managerial perspective, one of the key functions is to allocate necessary resources to attain organizational goals. For that, managers must first identify and assess many alternatives to determine which has a better chance of producing the desired final outcomes more efficiently.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

To truly understand Equifinality, we must fully comprehend the concepts of effectiveness and efficiency. What’s the difference? By definition, to be effective is to get the job done while being Efficient is being effective with less. There lies a minor distinction that has major implications on the design of work processes and, yes, the overall chances for organizational survival.   Let’s use golf as one example: an effective golfer is able to get the ball from the tee box to the green and the hole simply by swinging a club. Most golfers can do this. Does that make all golfers Tiger Woods? Absolutely not. Tiger Woods is an efficient golfer. He can get the ball from the tee to the hole in fewer strokes than almost any other golfer can. While other golfers may equally achieve the final outcome effectively, Tiger or any other winner accomplishes the same outcome more efficiently with fewer strokes. That ability to achieve the same with less is the essence of equifinality.  Another example: Southwest Airlines is one of the most profitable airlines in the world. Why? simple - Southwest is an efficient operator: the average turnaround time for a plane, from arrival at the gate to departure, fully loaded with passengers and cargo is 30 minutes; the av

Similarly - your company’s long term chances of survival largely depend on its efficiency.     Frederick Winslow Taylor described the essence of efficiency as “the one best way” and spent his life searching for mechanisms to help businesses find the most efficient way to produce their products. Taylor suggested the three-step process of -observation, analysis, and redesign of the work process as a universal method of identifying the optimal process for producing any product or delivering a service. As a responsible members of a modern organization, our job is to find the most efficient series of steps to create the product or provide the service that is the basis for the existence of our organization and thus fulfill the organization’s mission. Simply stated, we should always examine what we do and the processes we employ to get things done and try to improve their efficiency.      


         Another relative term essential to understanding equifinality is the idea of opportunity cost. Simply defined, opportunity cost represents the lost value that would have been received if other alternatives were chosen. In essence, when an explicit decision is made to allocate a resource to a specific task, an implicit decision is simultaneously made not to support other tasks. So, when a manager makes a decision to use a particular resource to accomplish a particular goal, that resource cannot be used to achieve another goal. By selecting one course of action, others cannot be followed. For example, If I invest $10k by purchasing stocks in Dell computers, I am choosing not to invest the $10K in IBM, or GE stocks. In essence, I am taking my chances with Dell’s stock, that chance is costing me the opportunity to gain the increase in IBM’s or GE’s stock value.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

     Think back to old game show, Let’s Make a Deal. In Let’s Make a Deal, contestants were asked to pick one of three doors in order to win a prize. Some prizes were far more desirable than others –a car, for example—while one of the others might be a year’s supply of dry cat food. The contestants could only pick one door. By picking Door Number One, they sacrificed the opportunity to receive the prizes behind the other two doors. The opportunity cost of Door Number One was the combined values of the prizes behind Doors Two and Three. If the car is valued at $20,000, the cat food is valued at $360, and the third prize is a camera valued at $200, the opportunity cost of picking the car is $560. If you made that choice, congratulations! You would have come out $19,440 ahead. But if you picked Door Number Three, the camera, the opportunity cost would have been $19, 800— while you may be gaining something you would also be losing the opportunity to gain more.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

        Say you are a shop owner who has some space in the front of your store. One day, a sales representative for a vending machine company visits you and offers to place a gumball machine in the empty space in front of your store for 50% of the revenues generated by the machine. He would install the machine and take care of all needed maintenance. You would have nothing to do but collect the money it generates. What do you think? Well, it seems like a good idea until you consider that the purchasing the machine and operating it would double the net monthly profits.    In short, gaining an additional 40 dollars in profit on monthly basis is always a good idea. But that seemingly free money is actually costing you the opportunity to make 80 dollars. The bottom line here is that as we make decisions based on which alternative to choose, we should always explore the hidden cost of opportunities.  

 Shifting to a prescriptive phase we ask, how does opportunity cost affect organizations? Efficiency is measured not only in terms of the gross amount of resources used. It is also measured in terms of the opportunity cost of all of the other possible decisions that could have been made.  To say that the installation of a $20,000 piece of equipment costs the organization $20,000 is not entirely accurate. If one of the alternatives is to install a $15,000 piece of equipment that could also perform the function equally, then, the opportunity cost is a $5000 savings to the organization.   If on the other hand, the $15000 equipment comes with a 20% increase in labor cost amounting to $10,000, then the cost of the equipment PLUS the additional labor is more than the chosen alternative at no real cost to the organization.    An efficient manager must consider the value of foregoing other alternatives in order to pursue the alternative selected.                                                                                                                                                                              


  Let’s look at one more example. Mike is the manager of a team of sales representatives for a pharmaceutical company. He has 5 sales reps to cover a six state region. Because Mike was a sales representative himself, he knows that the majority of customers are located in several major cities; however, he also knows that many potential customers are in smaller towns and cities. He has a finite resource: the number of available sales reps with a finite amount of time to make calls. Mike has to consider that by basing his sales representatives in the major cities and instructing them to concentrate on major hospitals and clinics in the cities; he is passing up potential sales in the smaller towns. Mike has to balance the potential sales in the cities with the sales in smaller towns.                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

    Summarizing this unit, we have learned that the foundational principle of equifinality determines that there are many ways to achieve a desired outcome. However, successful managers focus on the efficient way—the one that uses the fewest resources and generates maximum outcomes. We also learned that all decisions come with a cost—the opportunity cost of alternatives not chosen. Now you are ready to move onto the Complete section.     


Unit 5 actual homework assignment:

We will continue with the prescriptive phase by asking how can this knowledge be applied to improve my own chosen organization. In the “complete” section, you will be asked to select a work process in your department and identify the steps within that process. Simply select a work process that is often performed 9one that you are familiar with and can analyze would be the ideal choice and trace its steps as they are currently designed. Try to break it into 15 steps or so. In the next unit, you may use this process for further analysis. For now, simply list each step as it is currently performed.        

Then use that work process to as basis for completing the Work Process Analysis form. If you decide to use another process to complete this form you may – just make sure to begin by detailing the current steps in the new process.     

The key consideration when completing the work process analysis form is to assess the value each step adds to the overall attainment of the goal the process was designed to accomplish. In a way, you are asking whether each step is directly contributing to the achievement of that goal or is it just busy activity that carries the opportunity cost of performing a truly value added step. You see, non value added activities are similar to running in place and cost you the opportunity for real advancement.     

Using the link found in the complete section of the System~n~practice website, fill out and submit the following forms:

Process sequence form

Work process analysis form

The “forms” are forms that can be found in both unit 4 and unit 5 book attachment. 

The Mission is Divided into Major Goals

Major Goals are Divided into Objectives

Objectives are accomplished by Processes



Identify a process that you perform regularly to fulfill the objectives of your position. Trace and list the specific steps that make up the process below:

Give the Name of your Process and give 12 steps that make up your process:


2.     Work Process Analysis   Step 1

Identify the major function of your division:


3. Step 2

Identify the closest partner divisions and their major function:

4. Step 3:

Review the steps you listed on the Process Sequence form
and evaluate each step for any of the following actions.

ELIMINATE: Here, identify and list all steps that can be eliminated without reducing the overall effectiveness of the process.

5. COMBINE: In this space, identify and list any step(s) that can be combined to improve efficiency.

6.MODIFY: In this box, identify and list any step(s) the modification of which can improve overall efficiency.

7. ADD: Finally, list and briefly describe any step the addition of which can add value to the process (i.e. enhance product quality, reduce reworks, etc.).


Unit 5 discussion question:

 Review the assigned case study Alexander the Great and Darius and post what you believe to be the primary reason behind Alexander's victory despite inferior army size.


Student responses needed for the following classmates:


  Tony, the primary reason Alexander the Great soundly defeated Darius was due to his better use of the resources he had. Alexander was both effective and efficient. Although Darius had a 5 to 1 advantage in number of men on the battlefield, Alexander’s army was better trained and more disciplined than Darius’s army.

 Alexander effectively used his troops by the formation and positioning of his troops in a manner that was different than the typical pattern for battle in his time.  His troops were much more compact which allowed him to advance and move forward while engaged. He also had better resources for his troops, such as 18 foot spears that allowed his soldiers to strike and kill the opponent without getting close to them. Darius’s soldiers had more standard length swords, which would not reach their opponent as they were being attacked. Alexander also approached battle more strategically by not sacrificing his most skilled soldiers early in battle and allowing them to attack later in battle when the opponent has been weakened.

 The numbers reported of Darius losing over 40,000 men in battle compared to only 500 by Alexander is proof that Alexander used revolutionary tactics and resources in new and efficient ways that led to this incredible victory.  This was the primary reason for his success.



      The primary reason behind Alexander the Great's victory despite inferior army size is obvious. He was a very clever man who exceeded greatness. Alexander the Great did not allow what was in front of him to overcome him and his crew. He outsmarted Darius by taking advantage of the help he had. He was able to focus more on his army of men and the task ahead. Since he had a smaller number of troops, he could work directly with the ones who would be more effective at different moments during the fight. Alexander the Great recognized that he could not win if he did not have a plan that consisted of defeating an army that was larger in size. He was definitely effective and efficient because he got things done in a manner that did not require adding to his fleet of men.

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Due By (Pacific Time) 12/29/2014 12:00 pm
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