Project #45195 - PHIL HW


1. 70-71: What does Meno want to know about virtue? Explain Socratesʼ response at 71b.

2. 71e-72a: What does Meno say virtue is?

3. 72b-73: How do Socratesʼ examples about health and strength in a man and woman, and his comment at 73c about humans being good, help clarify what it is he wants from Meno?

4. 77d-79e: After an earlier attempt at a definition of virtue at 73d, Meno now gives another at 77b. What is it, and why does it fail between 79a-e.

5. 77b-78a: On evil (wanting bad things): Try to restate Socratesʼ argument proving that no one wants bad things (evil).

6. 80a-80b: Why is Socrates characterized as a stingray?

7. 80e: Restate the paradox concerning knowledge and inquiry?

8. 81-82: How is the mythical story about the soul used by Socrates to answer the paradox?

9. 82-86: What does the illustration with slave boy demonstrate about the nature of knowledge, inquiry, and being perplexed? How is this analogous to Menoʼs own situation with virtue?

10. 86d-87d: What is the value of hypothesis?

11. 89c: What is their working hypothesis? Why does it fail at 96d?

12. 97-100: What is the difference between knowledge and true belief?


13. 62a-63: What reasons are offered against taking ones own life?

14. 64a-69e: List specific reasons given by Socrates for not fearing death and why a Philosopher should be confident about dying. Describe the relation between the soul (thought) and the body (senses), and when wisdom is finally attained.

15. 70c-72e: Sometimes called the Cyclical Argument, what is the ancient doctrine about Hades? What does he mean by opposites needing two processes at 71b? What would happen if the process were linear?

16. 73a-74: Recollection Argument: What does recollection have to do with our soul and with being reminded of things similar and dissimilar?

17. 74a-77c: What does he mean by the Equal itself? Why canʼt it be derived from sense experience, and what does it imply about the soul?

18. 78b-80b: Sometimes called the Affinity Argument (things being akin or alike): Make a list of all the characteristics that the soul is said to like, make another list for characteristics for the body. What does Socrates say about the body soul relation between 82e-84?

19. 84c-86d: Summarize the objection of Simmias. (soulʼs attunement) (NEXT PAGE) 1



20. 86d-88b: Summarize the objection of Cebes (wearing out many cloaks) 21. 91c-95e: What is Socrates reply to Simmias?

22. Explain Socratesʼ reply to Cebes:

a) 95e-99d: Why was Socrates disappointed with Anaxagoras and natural science?

b) 99d-102a: Explain his new method of hypothesis and cause. What is meant by the phrase, sharing in,

sometimes translated as participation?

c) 102a-107a: How does the theory of Forms and the restatement about opposites prove the soulʼs



23. 201a-202a: According to Diotima, why does Love not possess good and beautiful things? What does it imply about its nature?

24. 202a-202d: Why does she say Love is Spirit, and what follows from this?

25. 203b-204a: Who are the parents of love, and how are their characteristic together indicative of the


26. 204b-207a: According to Diotima, what is the function of Love?

27. 207b-209e: What point is being made about pregnancy of body vs. pregnancy of soul?

28. 210a-212a: List and explain the process (6 stages) a lover goes through to attain a true understanding of beauty itself.









1. 336b-341a: What is Thrasymachusʼ definition of Justice (Morality) on 338c?

2. 341a-343: What is Clitophonsʼ point about an expert ruler?

3. 343a-344c: According to Thrasymachus, why is a just person worse off than an injustice one?

4. 352e-354c: How does Socrates response concerning function serve to counter Thrasymachus?

5. 357a-d: List the three kinds of Good mentioned by Glaucon.

6. 358e-359c: What does Glaucon say about the origin of Justice (Morality), and why it is practiced? What kind of theory of justice is this?

7. 359d-362c: What point is being made with the story of Gyges ring? Briefly summarize the thought experiment that Glaucon proposes to Socrates about the two rings.

8. 369a-417b: Beginning the Socratic Answer: Explain the ʻnoble lieʼ and the needs of any (ideal) society, its division, how ones position is to be determined.

9. 427d-434d: List and describe the four virtues. How do they function in the state? How do they function in the individual? What makes a just (moral) society?

10. 11. 12.

13. 14.

434d-442e: List and describe in detail the three parts of the soul.

473d-480a: List the characteristics given of the Philosopher and those of the Non-Philosopher.

502c-509c: What does Socrates say about the nature of the Good, and how it is analogous to the image of the sun?

509c-511e: Explain in detail the four stages of cognition (of awareness) and the objects of awareness as described on the dividing line (509d). (Consult handout)

514a-521b: Using the Cave Allegory as your guide, explain the changes in our awareness as we make the journey out of the cave and into the light. (Consult handout)



15. 16. 17. 18.



21. 22. 23. 24. 25.


127b-128e: What points are Zeno and Parmenides making at the beginning of the dialogue? 129a-130a: What does Socrates say about the Form?

130b-131a: What kinds of things are and are not Forms?

131a-132a: How does Socrates account for how things share-in the Form? What is Parmenides objection?

132d-133d: How does Socrates restate the issue at 132d? What is Parmenidesʼ reply at 133a-d?


28a-29d: What is the distinction between being and becoming? How are they linked to the creation of the world?

29e-31a: Why was the world made to resemble a living thing? 31b-34b: What is the composition of the worldʼs body? 34b-36d: What is the composition of the worldʼs soul? 36e-37c: Summarize the union of the soul and body.

37d: Explain the creation of time.





1. Ch. 4; 2a: The Categories are concerned are concerned with the various things we can say or predicate of a particular subject (substance). List the 10 categories at 2a. Provide an example of your own using at least two of the categories to form a simple sentence. Identify the categories being used.

2. Ch. 5; 15-20: What is the difference between primary and secondary substances?

3. Ch. 5; 2b; 5-10 & 25: Explain the importance of primary substance and the difference between

species and genus. Does substance have degrees?

4. Ch. 5; 3b; 10-15: What is meant by a this in regards to primary and secondary substances? Explain what he means at lines 30-4a when he says that substance has no contrary?

5. Ch. 5; 4a; 20-35: What does it mean to say that substances can receive contraries?


6. Bk 1; ch. 1; 71a; 1-20: What are the two ways in which previous cognition is needed?

7. ch. 1; 25- 71b: What is Aristotleʼs answer to the puzzle in Platoʼs Meno?

8. ch. 2; 10-20: When do we know a thing?

9. ch. 2; 15-30: What is mean by demonstration? What is demonstrative knowledge derived from?

10. ch. 2; 30-72a; 5 What is meant by prior and better known to us and prior and better known without qualification?

11. ch. 2; 72a; 15-25: Explain the types of premises (reasons) used in a demonstration (thesis, axioms, assumptions, definitions). See the handout to assist you. Explain the relation between premises and conclusion in a demonstrative proof at 25-30.

12. ch.3; This chapter concerns the issue of whether knowledge is possible. Briefly summarize the objections of the first party in lines 5-15 and the other party in lines 15-20. What is Aristotleʼs reply at 20-30 and at 73a 15-20

13. Bk 2; ch. 19: Read carefully. This is Aristotleʼs account of how we come to recognize principles (Universals), and his rejection of Platonic Innate Ideas. Summarize his account from 99b; 30- 100a; 5-15. Read the summary at 15. How do we produce the universal in us at 100b-5? What is the distinction between (knowledge & understanding) and (belief and reasoning)? 5-15?


14. BK 1: 184a-184b: When do we achieve scientific knowledge of something?

15. BK 2: ch. 1; 192b; 1-35: What is the distinction between natural objects and artifacts concerning their principle of motion?

16. ch. 1; 193a-193b; 1-20: Summarize the two accounts of nature given. Look for the phrases; some people say that and in another way the nature is.




17. ch. 2; 25-194b: What is the difference in the object of study between the mathematician and the student of nature: What is his criticism of the Platonists those who say there are Ideas at 194a?

18. ch. 3; 20-35: List and describe Aristotleʼs four causes for the why of things. See also ch. 7; 15-25.

19. ch. 5: Briefly summarize Aristotleʼs account of luck. See especially 197a; 1-15 and 197b; 1-10.

20. ch. 6; 197b; 15-35: Summarize his account of chance.


21. ch. 8 and 9: Summarize Aristotleʼs account of End, Purpose, and Error in Nature. What point is he making about necessity in nature?

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