Project #37840 - The Origins of the Internet and its Implications in Modern Society


I need an abstract paper for my project must be 2 pages 300 words. 

  1. An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject or discipline, and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain thepaper's purpose.

 also need  help with my introduction and my conclusion must be 2 to 3 paragraphs. Here is my project


The Origins of the Internet and its Implications in Modern Society






Even though it seems as if the internet has been around forever, it is a modern new technology; that we could not think about living without.  Upon the introduction of the Internet, communications have and continue to play a key role into the modern world, placing the end user in a position where dependency is the theme of the future.  So whether you can’t live without it or are just an occasional user, you have to admit that is makes our lives just a little bit easier.  After all, there was a time when no one dreamed of surfing the web.


The internet’s origins can be traced back to extensive research that was commissioned by the government of the United States, mainly in the 1960s to build a fault-tolerant and robust communication through computer networks. However, there are other authoritative sources, which state that the internet history began with the electronic computer development, which took place in the 1950s. These sources state that the initial packet-networking concept originated in numerous computer science laboratories mainly in France, Great Britain, and in the United States (Hamilton, 2005).

Foundations in technological advancement truly made their initial mark when on October 4, 1957; the Soviet Union touched the fabric of history through the successful launch of the world’s first satellite, named Sputnik, into outer space.  Although simple and primitive in its overall framework, its functionality involved the sending of radio transmissions back to Earth.  This sent a message to the American public, showing that their not-so-distant neighbors behind the Iron Curtain were involved in technologies which would soon be the precursor from which geographically distant communications would take place.  There was a sense of panic, though, as we were engaged in a war that promised the aftermath of nuclear devastation.  With that being said, a race to the finish line was being waged, involving a call challenging those to rights as the next world power.

            Military experts and scientists were concerned about the consequences of a full scale attack by the Soviets, as events escalated towards the beginning of the Regan administration.  A scare was imposed upon the people who promised the potential for the launching of missile systems into the nation’s infrastructure, resulting in the destruction of telephone lines which support both local and remote communications.  ‘Just one missile, they feared, could destroy the whole network of lines and wires that made efficient long-distance communication possible.  In addition, in the 1960s, the US Department of Defense awarded various contracts for the development of packet network systems, which included the ARPANET development, which was the first network to utilize the IP (Internet Protocol).  In 1962, a scientist from MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) named J.C.R. Licklider proposed a solution to this problem: a “galactic network” of computers that could talk to one another. Such a network would enable government leaders to communicate even if the Soviets destroyed the telephone system.’ (2014)

In 1963, an unknown future implementation otherwise known as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) would be developed in collaboration by both government and industry leadership.  ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is a globally accepted architecture which allows applicable computers and communications devices to exchange data through text, especially when involving disparate hardware and software manufacturers, as originally founded through the English alphabet.  It specifically encodes one-hundred and twenty eight specific values into seven bit binary integers, being the numbers zero through nine, the letters a through z, the capitalized values of A through Z, a blank space value, punctuation symbols and miscellaneous control codes incorporated within the developmental lifecycle of the teleprompter.  Shortly following afterwards, due to the ability of being able to exchange information, universally, through the ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) format, the DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) released interest in the PDP-8, the first microcomputer to successfully hit the commercial market at a hefty price tag of eighteen thousand USD (United States dollars).  What would ensue is the integration of the microcomputer in the workplace, scientific environment, manufacturing plant, education system, etc.  Through ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) output, the first WAN (wide area network) would come to be established through a telephone line integrated with acoustic couplers between sites located at the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and Santa Monica involving both the TX-2 and Q-32, respectively.  A gentleman by the name of Kleinrock would be credited for predicting that packet switching, as opposed to circuit switching, would become the popular standard for communications between devices.

Following the launch of the Sputnik, both science and technology took precedence within the borders of America.  Added courses, such as physics, chemistry and calculus, were established in both public and private school systems, as an example of the seriousness of American advancement.  The corporate sector took initiative in obtaining grants towards development and the federal government took steps, as well, in the establishment of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and more importantly, ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), a DoD (Department of Defense) initiative which would prove to be responsible in the development of interconnected packet-switched network communications through a concept called the ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network).  During the year 1966, Roberts attended the DARPA in order to develop the computer concepts on a network in a quicker way. This was later published in 1967 where there was a conference where he actually represented the paper which has the concept of computer networks. He then merged his ideas with the RAND group who were presenting their ideas on packet switching for networks in order to secure voice in the military. These ideas were interlinked with each other and they helped to develop the concept on the internet. The ARPANET concept of the internet was then developed from these two ideas. The ARPNET was finally upgraded to 50kbps from the initial 2.4kbps.           

            The ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), in 1969, was responsible for the first ever recorded instance of communications from one node, located at a research lab at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) to another, located at Leland Stanford Junior University in Stanford, California.  That message was ‘LOGIN’ although the first two letters of the message would be the only successful instances which would travel from source to intended destination.  A total of four computers were interconnected at ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) by the end of the 60’s, but from here, the principles of networking would grow.  The 1970’s gave birth to the University of Hawaii’s ALOHANET and two years later networks at London’s University College and the Royal Radar Establishment in Norway would be established.  It appeared that the introduction of packet-switched network communications, otherwise known as the ‘Internet’ was gaining momentum at this juncture.

            Vinton Cerf, in the post-70’s, had fine tuned internationally accepted Internet transmissions through the creation of a protocol by the name of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) which would allow for the idea of a virtual ‘handshake’ which connects disparate computers to one another.  IP (Internet Protocol) would come to be added later to the stack.  The creation of the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) protocol would allow scientists and researchers the freedom of being able to push packets containing electronic data to one another.  These developments have gradually advanced to what is currently referred to as the internet. The science that is associated with the internet involves the linking of billions of interconnected devices, which are able to communicate with each other, as well as sharing information (Tkacz, 2009).  However, in 1991, the instance of the computer network was once again revolutionized.  A fellow by the name of Tim Berners-Lee would become introduced into the technological market, which was responsible for the creation of the World Wide Web as we know in modern times.  The Internet was not just a way to send files from source to destination, but contained in itself a ‘web’ of information that anyone on the Internet could draw from.

            As a result, it was not a surprising occurrence in defining the brave new role of the software developer, whose primary role was to create programs which integrate with applicable computer systems, providing for both automated and manual interface task settings.  Enter in the NSF (National Science Foundation) whose centers would develop a large array of tools for the purposes of locating, navigating and organizing data, although their most considerable accomplishment would materialize in the form of the NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) Mosaic, a web browser which would come to be accessed through millions of users, setting off exponential growth towards the rise of the modern day ISP (Internet Service Provider).  ‘Marc Andreessen headed the team that developed Mosaic, a graphical browser that allowed programmers to post images, sound, video clips, and multi font text within a hypertext system.  Mosaic engendered a wide range of commercial developments including numerous commercial versions of Web browsers, such as Andreessen's Netscape and Microsoft's Internet Explorer.’ (2014)

            And now, we are at the heart of the next step of the technological revolution, or better yet, the ability to locate and contain information, leading to the potential for the compromise of end user accounts.  Regardless of the above information presented, considering the amount of time which has expired, the Internet is technically still in its infancy, only being introduced to the general public for widespread use within a three decade time span.  It traditionally does take some time to refine and control breakthrough innovations, which in the modern day sense of the word is the World Wide Web.  With the potential for unlimited access to nearly inexhaustible distributed resources comes concern.  That concern manifests in the domain of cyber security, which, consequently, has been around for some time, although in slightly different fashion in comparison to today’s standards.  Hackers/crackers were utilizing telephone dial tones and adopting a DIY (do it yourself) ethos in which to connect technologies to military computers (for the purpose of reference both ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) and MILNET (Military Network) were in operation around a decade before the public had access to the Internet) in order to steal data, release viruses and/or infiltrate, just to prove that ‘they could’.  


The internet has a changed the world economy since many companies have gone back to the drawing board to re-strategies on their policy. This is because the internet has established what is commonly referred as globalization. Globalization has led to companies being able to conduct business in any part of the world since the internet has offered an international exposure to companies. The internet has enabled companies to market their goods and products to the entire world and this has generated extra income for them. These companies have to embrace the internet for them to remain relevant in the business world (Bodden, 2008).

Internet use has both sociological and psychological effects on its users. Communication is one of the areas that have experienced much change due to the internet. The process of communication has greatly improved ever since the internet was invented back in the years. The internet has also helped the communication as there is high speed of communication. Many businesses have now adopted the use of the internet for communication with their customers and suppliers. This is important as the communication via the internet has been highly recommended for business growth and prosperity (Leamer, 2009). Despite the positive contributions, there have been negative both sociological and psychological effects on its users.

There are various sociological and psychological effects that arise due to the frequent use of the internet. To start with, the communication can take various forms. The social network sites such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter have recorded increased use of people from all age brackets. Many users are currently using these media for communication purposes. The adults use social networking sites to connect with old friends, keep up with their peers, and meet new friends (Kammen, 2009). These have formed the best social platforms ever since many users have now registered themselves as members on social sites.

Cyber Security

         Internet or cyber security concentrates on protecting processors, systems, programs, and information from unpremeditated or illegal access, alteration, or damage.  Cyber security is important to the governments, services, organizations, monetary institutions, infirmaries and other industries since they are able to collect, route and store confidential data on computers and convey that data crosswise systems to other computers.  It is remarkably significant that the public have admission to safe and protected internet.

Cyber security ‘focuses on protecting the information assets of a public or private company, such as computers, programs, and data, from unintended or unauthorized access, use, modification, or destruction.  Every company or entity from a small, local retail outlet to the United States government has information assets that are confidential, sensitive, or otherwise in need of privatization, and cyber security is the act of and process through which this data is securely stored and protected.’ (Sarvesh, 2013)  The most complex data breaches have been the result of systems being hacked or cracked, whether internally or externally, resulting in loss of varying degrees.  The inclusive nature and responsibilities; of a systems administrator or security analyst takes on a dual role.   Meaning that they are as much at fault for network breaches in contrast to the source from which malicious actions took place.  The closing down of ports, strengthening of firewall rules, implementation of IDS’s (Intrusion Detection System’s) and installation of anti-malware programs are but a few examples of the tasks that they must verify and act upon before a respective network is thrown into a production environment.

            In fast forwarding to events in recent times, research concludes that ‘cyber attacks increased dramatically, almost 800%, from 2006 to 2012, and it is estimated that cyber security will become the second largest operational cost in the United States within a few years demanding more talented individuals with a cyber security specialization.  Some of the bigger data breaches, and their number of compromised files or records, include:

·      U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs: 26,500,000

·      United Kingdom Revenue & Customs: 25,000,000

·      United States Military: 76,000,000

·      Sony Online Entertainment: 24,600,000

·      Evernote: 50,000,000’ (Sarvesh, 2013)

It is apparent that cyber thieves are unscrupulous and unrelenting in their attacks on the world’s digital architecture, stealing assets ranging from online user names and passwords to more robust targets in the form of financial data.

With many companies unable to keep pace with the technological savvy and creative data manipulation techniques used by cyber criminals, cyber security sometimes seems to be taking a reactive stance instead of a proactive one.  This is not necessarily the case, however, because there are dozens, if not hundreds, of ways in which someone can gain unauthorized access to a company’s data, and it is an almost impossible task to guard every single one of those access points.   The phrase “to catch a thief you have to think like one” may prove more true than we realize, because federal agencies have adopted the controversial but effective strategy of hiring convicted hackers and cyber criminals to work in their cyber security divisions.   Perhaps the best way to protect sensitive data is to try to steal it, reveal any weaknesses in the system, and repair them before they are discovered by real thieves with fraudulent intentions.’ (Sarvesh, 2013)

Cyber engagement covers an extensive variety of practices, from minor to innovatory loud crowds to domestic organizations, from hacking into administration security structures to community rebellion.  The internet to some degree affects most individuals, and any person who accesses it can turn into a prey of cyber-crime.  The cyber-attacks threaten the stability of economic, social, and political environment giving rise to the question: should governments, individuals or organizations be accountable for protecting employment and domestic secrets via cyber security controls?  With theincreasing capacity and superiority of cyber-wars, constant devotion is required to safeguard sensitive corporate and private information, also maintain state security.

The essential controls should be least standard of security for all citizens where they involve instituting rules, setting consequences for breaching laws, and formation of foreign rules concerning cyber-attacks with other states.  Responsibility exists in every individual, organization, and administration unit to be virtuous guards of data to curb the problems that arise from this technology.

The use of cyber security software provides the opportunity to organizations and individuals to protect themselves from computer attacks.   Cyber software technology protects against the most basic malicious software to more developed software.  Hence, cyber security software provides safeguards to the users.

Cyber security is today a strenuous challenge for both personal and organizational users of the internet.  Cyber security software has emerged as a key solution in solving the problems experienced due to the infiltration of systems by malicious software.  However, such solutions do not come cheap to the consumer (Byres & Lowe, 2004).

The consumer is increasingly pressured to purchase expensive cyber security software. This is due to the perception that such software will protect against challenges arising.  Yet, in the case that the cyber security software is bypassed, the consumer faces the cost of repairing the system and data loss as well as the procurement of new hardware and software.  Further, the cyber security systems provide a channel in which critical information regarding an individual or organization can be accessed.  The premier cyber security company or other malicious individuals can collect either such information. 

Considering these circumstances, it is only the ethical and moral code of the organization that provides a safeguard against organizations using the information that the firms are protecting for their benefit.  Most organizations in this position collect only tidbits of information and not the whole data. Such a scenario is worrying as such, tidbits of information are still private and there are opportunities to improve their systems to collect more information (Falliere, Murchu, & Chie, 2011).

Governments today are increasingly collecting data across the world to protect their states from terrorism and economic sabotage.  However, in the process of collecting information under the guise of national security, privacy of information is ignored.  Undisputedly, in such endeavors, cyber security software hacking are a key tool for governments (Krebs, 2008).

In conclusion, cyber security software greatest weakness is its threats. With the advent of cyber security software, developers of malicious software improved their technical skills to not only develop threats against computer security.  The developers actually targeted computer software loopholes to propagate their malicious intentions.  The result, is that while organizations and individuals may perceive themselves to be protected against cyber crime when the use cyber security software, it is not completely the fact.  Despite these circumstances, cyber security software provides the best opportunity against potential internet security threats and challenges.

In approaching the above concerns, simple practices can and must be exercised which truly do start and end with the end user.  A sense of dynamism is highly encouraged, meaning that unpredictability and motion are the best techniques to keep in ones arsenal when approaching a future where technology is advancing by leaps and bounds.  A brief account of recommended basic mitigation strategies are as follows:

ü  Establishment of strong passwords that are not repeated through various accounts

ü  Use of simple, yet non-familiar user profile names

ü  General environmental awareness for the purpose of identifying potential shoulder surfers, dumpster divers, social engineers, etc.

ü  Establish security hardware and/or software that has a proven track record and verify the credibility of both interface familiarity and end user support.

ü  Manual updating of software programs

ü  The filling of information on forms only where data is required

ü  Locks and/or enclosures which secure important electronic devices to/within immovable objects, considering that mobility proves to be a bottleneck

ü  The backup and storage of vital information in secure, undisclosed locations

ü  Overall anonymity in the social sector (in other words, utilize common sense, discrepancy and tact)

ü  Powers down/deactivate devices and sign out of user profiles at the point of exiting their usage.

ü  Monitor all applicable resources with a sense of diligence.

ü  Practice safe e-mail, Web, IM and social media measures.  Be especially careful of peer-to-peer client applications.

ü  Education!


The sociological effects of the internet technology on the society

The internet has made it possible for people from any corner of the world to socialize effectively.  This has led to people knowing more about each other without necessarily travelling to their locations.  Family members are able to communicate and share photos as well as update each other through the internet.  Thus, the internet has provided a valuable link among family members since they can share and discuss family matters at ease without having to travel back home for such meetings.  This method is cost effective and people are able to save to do other tasks.  People are also able to communicate through email (Tkacz, 2009).

With social networks, face-to-face communications have greatly reduced.  Shy and introverted people can now communicate well using social networking platforms.  It is now possible to communicate as an anonymous person and a person you never met before.  This is necessary for proper communication.  Lack of face-to-face communication has reduced the reliability of information being conveyed since the people are not in a position of meeting and interacting with each other (Kammen, 2009).  The person is also not aware whether they are chatting with the right person or not.  This has made the internet to become rather complicated when communicating since the people can falsify their characters.      

A lot of communication is done through social media.  People make friends online and share information without having ever met physically.  Personal information is being shared on social networking sites.  The process of sharing the information with unknown people has become very common these days.  The process of making new friends, even without meeting them is tricky.  The parties talking may seem to know each other well, but in real sense they are just unfamiliar.  These people may seem to have equal tastes and preferences, but in the real sense that does not always happens.  The psychologists argue that the online friendship is subject to limitations since the people’s expectations are not met once the parties get a chance to interact. The parties may not form a long term friendship, especially if their interests and tastes differ from what they expected.            

The other effect is about the young people who spend much of their time on the internet.  The internet is addictive for younger people.  They spend much of their time in Facebook and Twitter since these are the most common social sites.  The young people have become social networking addicts (Kammen, 2009).  Some logs into social sites more than five times each day. There are some concerns about loss of productive times, especially by teenagers and you adults who spend about 2 hours daily on social sites.  The time lost on social sites can be invested somewhere else to earn a better life.  These social sites are very addictive and this has attracted the attention of the youth.  The Psychologists argue that the youth are more likely to be use the internet in odd hours as they do not want to like their online friends “hanging” buy uncompleted conversations.  This has been witnessed in the case of Facebook, twitter and whatsapp as they are most common sites.      

The other effect of the internet is on the culture of reading books.  The internet use affects reading books.  It is more difficult to concentrate reading a book after continued usage of the internet.  People tend to skim more than reading.  Internet usage affects attention span and it is difficult to pay much attention when reading since internet users are used to skimming through web pages when looking for information (Holmes, 2009).  People are less concerned with reading books and this means they get shallow knowledge from reading from the internet.  The research work via the internet is not very detailed and the content cannot be used to have a good understanding of the academic ideas.       

The other barrier of the internet is that it affects the productivity of workers at the work place.  The people are affected negatively, meaning that the productivity of the company is also decreased.  Some workers spend working hours accessing the internet for personal use in social sites.  Some companies have blocked social sites to ensure their employees do not waste company hours socializing.  Students are also affected and they spend more time socializing instead of studying (Anderson, 2012).  This has led to poor grades for the students and hence acts as a limitation towards realization of set goals.  This is true since the workers are either chatting with their buddies.  This time would have used to trigger the profit level of the company by joining the hands of the people to increase the efforts of each person.  Proper use of internet can increase the profit level of the company only if the people are keen and do proper communication of the business goals.   

The other negative effect of the internet is that it leads to addiction.  The addiction in this case is because of the continued use of the internet which later on affects the daily life.  A person will feel sick or unwell if a day passes without using the internet or social sites.  Excessive internet use is addictive, and may change a person’s way of life.  It may change how a person interacts with his close friends.  The changes can make people to interact badly if these behaviors are not changed.  The long term effect is that the people are likely to have increased negative effects in the long run.  The final effect of the internet is that it negatively affects the acts of individuals.  Some acts, especially among young people, such as drug use, are as a result of content they accessed on the internet that prompted them to try (Anderson, 2012).  People tend to emulate what they see their idols do, and the internet is the main source of such information.  This can affect an individual negatively in the future if these habits are adopted all the time.  Most bad habits are obtained from the internet since there are no limitations on what content to post on the internet.  The person cannot function well in the real sense because of effects of continued use of internet.   


Excessive use of the internet may change how you interact with friends.  For example, if you spend much time on social media sites like Facebook, you may end up reducing the time you physically socialize with your friends, which is not a good thing.  Facebook also consumes the time which would have been used to make someone more social.  Many people make friends online but they never meet with them.    The internet has changed reading habits since lots of information is now available online.  Therefore, people rarely read books, and when they do, they do not concentrate long enough like they used to during the pre-internet era.  These negative habits are very bad since they make the people to behave weird (Anderson, 2012).  The children have also grown up in this era and have adopted the bad habits from the other members of the society.   Some people get behaviors from the internet by following and copying the people they idolize without giving much thought about the behaviors.  For example, the youth like following what their favorite celebrities do even if it is not right.  Through this, they may start some behaviors such as taking drugs.  These behaviors are very harmful and they affect the functioning of a normal human being.  The users have always followed the current trends in the world not understanding the associated negative impacts of the same.

Social Media and our Children  

            Not only has the internet changed the lives of adults in the world, it has also changed the lives of our children.  These days it is hard to find a child that does not know how to use a computer and log on the internet and with monitoring by the parents, a computer with the internet can be a good learning tool for children.  Without proper monitoring a good learning tool can become big problem fast.  So it is the parents responsibility to monitor their child’s activity and keep them safe from predators.

              In recent years the internet has grown and social media has grown with it.  There are companies that do nothing but operate social media sites and make millions off of them.  But while these sites are good to keep in touch with family, friends and let everyone know where you are eating dinner, there is a down side to them too.  The beneficial side of these sites can be found just in the many good uses.  It does in fact help kids with their socialization and communication skills.  One good example of this would be the growth of ideas from the creation of blogs, podcasts, videos, and gaming sites.  (Gwenn Schurgin O'Keeffe, Kathleen Clarke-Pearson, 2013)  They can meet new people through the internet and can connect with other kids that share their same likes and interests.  So just like with adults, children start a network of friends from a very young age.  It can also help develop the child’s individual identity and unique social skills.  A child that is shy is school, might come out of their shell online, because of the actual lack of closeness.  Some schools have even incorporated social media into their schools, so students can connect outside of class to discuss assignments and other school related activities.

            There are many more ways that the internet can also be helpful, if basic medical or health advice is needed.   Now with the internet, it is almost like having a doctor in your living room.  The just search your symptoms and bam you have instant medical advice.  There are several websites these days that can give you sound advice on medical symptoms or any advice you could need for your health.  The key is to make sure that it is a trusted website and not some quake that just dropped information on the internet.  I would make sure that is an actual medical information sight or educational website.  Most doctors and even dentists have even started to use social media to remind you of your appointments or allow you to make an appointment online. 

            While social media has its advantages, there is also a downside to social media.  Unless you have been living under a rock, you have heard in the news about sexual predators on the social media sites trying to pick up kids.  They get to know them and act as if they are the same age and eventually they talk them into meeting up somewhere.  It all seems harmless until it happens to someone you know and then it becomes reality.  There are also the issues of sexting, such as kids sending explicit picture of themselves to each other.  More recent there has been issues with teachers sending pictures to students.  While we all know that teachers can get into serious trouble for communicating with students this way.  The same act can actually get the children arrested with felony child pornography charges.  The child can also get suspended from school if they are involved with the situation, so just because your kids are underage; does not make it any less of a crime.

            Some of the other down sides to social media can also be harassment or cyber bulling.  These normally happen from other people they already know or from people on sties that they frequent.  It can even start with a harmless online game of Call of Duty.  Then one thing leads to another and your child kills the wrong person and now the child or adult on the other end of that magical online connection is mad.  Some people take those games really seriously and if they feel that someone did them wrong, they become these nasty individuals, not really thinking who they might actually be play against online.   These actions could also even carry over from an event that happened at school.  Now with the internet that bullying can carry over to the child’s home life making the child not able to have that mental release.  It is just like everywhere else, other kids find weaknesses and they take advantage of they to get other kids to do things or to just make they feel bad.  There is also a new thing out called Facebook depression, (Gwenn Schurgin O'Keeffe, Kathleen Clarke-Pearson, 2013) this is where kids spend too much time on Facebook and they actually start to exhibit signs of depression.

The psychological effects of the internet technology on the society

The internet has been able to enlighten and inform people on any subject in this world.  A person can easily utilize the internet to get any information regarding anything in this world and this has effectively led to people becoming informed and knowledgeable.  The internet has also transformed how people view the world since the internet has opened up the entire world.  People are able to learn the cultures of other people in any part of the world just from a click of a button.  The internet has also made it possible for people around the world to interact with each other through providing a cheaper platform whereby they do not have to travel to other places to meet people or conduct their businesses (Hamilton, 2005).

People are able to transact their business and do their shopping through the internet and this has significantly reduced transportation costs.  It has also made it so that people that cannot get out and do things for themselves, now have the opportunity to go to the grocery store or department store and buy things they want or need.  The internet is the most convenient platform for a person to gather information about a particular firm or organization.  The internet has also made it possible for people to get an education from their location through online education.  You can now get a four year education without actually having to leave your house.  The internet has provided an ideal learning platform where people learn from their locations globally and share ideas with other students from other parts of the world (Bodden, 2008).  They are now even starting to do home schooling for children from an online platform, which is supposed to be adjusted to each child’s learning style.  Pretty soon both grade schools and universities won’t need actually buildings or campuses any more, which will cut down on admission fees.

It is evident that the internet has transformed the entire world and it has affected all the societal aspects both psychologically and sociologically.  The internet has numerous merits as compared to its demerits and this is the paramount reason why people around the world are embracing the internet technology.  The internet technology is gradually changing and people as well as organizations should ensure that they are up-to-date with the latest trends.   The internet is indeed a phenomenon that cannot be ignored since it has influenced the society and it will continue to affect it.   The internet is an integral part of today’s life and this is the major reason why many people are always on their PCs (personal computers), smart phones, and on the internet busy conducting their businesses.   The internet has also revolutionized how people conduct their official duties.   The majority of the people are nowadays working from their homes and they do not have to go to the offices.   This has enabled companies to reduce their office rental costs and recent research by authoritative scholars has shown that people who work at their own convenience have higher productivity.   This internet phenomenon should be encouraged globally.

In the quest to protect individuals from issues of cyber crime, internet security parades itself as a protector. It collects personal information on individuals from their daily lives.  This includes information on their relationships and family.  Information collected within this genre includes the type of relationship, the level of trust within the relationship.  Additionally information is collected on their personal self.  This includes information on their health, their educational background, and intelligence scores.  Additionally, information on the views of the person of the world and their interests are critical to such data collections (Hoffman et al. 1999).

Once the information has been collected, the cyber security develops an overall concept of the individual.  Hence, it can categorize the individual as a threat or otherwise depending on the needs of the cyber security system in question.  Whereas, most of the cyber crime systems do not have the capacity to infiltrate and collect on whole scale such information, the opportunity is there for such development.  To develop such systems requires heavy investment, which the government can undertake.  Despite this, cyber security technology available by private firms can harness segments of such critical information and utilize it for their own benefit.  In either case, whether by governments or private organization it goes against the privacy rights of individuals.

Organizations today operate within a highly competitive market.  Within the highly competitive market, it is important to develop strategies to outmaneuver competitors.  To achieve this objective, organizations require efficiency in operations, well-executed strategy, and innovation. These three criteria have an interdependent relationship with information. Information is required to improve efficiency in operations, strategy development, and innovation.  Further, the three criteria are centers of information, which are stored in databases.

It is in these databases that are protected by internet security systems among other modes of data protection that organizations utilize to protect their data.  However, it opens organizations key data to a third party, who only have an ethical responsibility that is holding them back from utilizing the data (Geer, 2006).

With a reputation to protect most of the internet, security organizations don’t utilize such data.  However, given such information is available, internet security systems can be hacked as rival organizations seek such critical information.  In addition, the internet security systems can collect such data under duress or partially.  With such critical data of operations of an organization open to the highest bidder in terms of technical expertise or funds, it opens a channel for sabotage of organizations (Cilluffo et al. 2001).


In the modern world it seems that most of us could not do without the internet.  We have become dependent on it just to get through our daily lives.  From the social media aspect to just finding our way to a specific location we need to go, we have become dependent on the internet and the data it can provide to us.  It is an iatrical part of our lives, from shopping to doing business and even communications.  You especially notice how it affects our live in ecommerce and social media.  From everyday purchases to keeping in touch with family and friends, it is hard to imagine a world without the internet.

            Ecommerce is taking hold everywhere around us, from ordering items online, to trading stocks.  It has become so prevalent that some people could not live without it.  But with all the good things that the internet brings, there are also all the criminal issues that come along with this technology. The internet and cyber crime go along hand and hand, you cannot think of one and not the other these days. 

            While the social media sites can drastically affect our lives for the good or bad, it is the same way with E-commerce.  The internet has grown to be such an iatrical part of our lives and e-commerce.  Today e-commerce has gotten so wide spread that you don’t even have to leave your house to buy groceries.  You just select what you want online and pay for them, then they deliver your groceries right to your door (for a small fee). 

            Like everything else with the internet there is a good side and bad side for using this technology.  The biggest benefit to our lives is that it makes them easier.  With the spread of the internet all over the globe, it has become easier to access from just about anywhere you might need it.  Internet has made it easier for businesses to reach out and contact their potential customers.  Now your business can be on the east coast and you can reach out and bring in new customers from the west coast or even from across the Pacific Ocean.  Marketing departments in companies just have to buy or put ads on the internet and try to influence people to use or purchase their products.  Most companies even have their own webpage to put their brand name out there, so even if they do not sell their products on their webpage, it still get that brand name out to the potential customers.  It also allows them to connect with more vendors, which could mean finding the same parts for a lower price, so in the long run it means more profit for the company.  Plus all people need to do to find a type of product they want is to use one of the many search engines out there to find whatever they are looking for and where they can purchase it by them or online.  Searching for a job has never been easier also.  No you can go online to see who is hiring and for what position.  You use to have to go from place to place to see if people were hiring, or you might find something in the newspaper.  Now there are several sites out there that just cater to the job market and with the new technology of the internet, it created more jobs that opened up in various industries.  With all this e-commerce, businesses need to make sure that all the transactions that are performed are secure.  As we have seen in recent years, letting customers information get into the wrong hands can have a negative effect on your online and store business.

            One of the biggest challenges that we face when using the internet for E-commerce; is the security of it within the organization and from outside of it.  To protect the company they need to invest in a good system and software to protect their information.  They also need to need to protect themselves from what their employees can access.  I know of a case where an employee was look at sites they should not be looking at, on company asset.  The whole company got investigated and it could not be determined who was on the illegal sites and hence the whole company was shut down and all assets were confiscated.  There are also other problems that can arise from employees having access to the internet.  (T.S. Eliot) “Technical problems develop when workers have access to the internet; software transferred by e-mail or downloaded from the internet often violates copyright laws, which is otherwise called technical infringement”.  Most companies have some sort of a monitoring system set up so they can keep track of what their employees are looking at or even sending over the internet.  Yes, your company probably looks at what you at reading in your emails and what you have searched for on your browser.  So you should always remember that when you are at work big brother is always watching you. 

            So not only do companies need to make sure that nothing illegal is happening inside of their organization.  Plus they need to make sure that no one can hack into any of their file. They also need to make sure that no copyright laws are being broken and that all of their information that they put out over the internet is correct and can be back up by their products, that way the company is covered from any frivolous law suits. 

            So with the advancement of technology and the more the internet grows the more advantages and disadvantages will come about.  As it grows the people that will have access to the internet will also grow and more and more people will continue to try and get past all the barriers that are put up so that they can steal information and wreak havoc over the invisible information highway.  Companies will have to improve the way that they secure customers and their own private information.

Internet security today has become a necessity for utilizing the internet today.  After all, it is important for protection against malware and viruses that can attack one’s computer through access of the internet.  Among the key areas that internet security technology protects against is the access to certain sites and internet downloads, which may harbor malicious software.

Today, the fear of infiltration of systems whether for personal use, business or government use is great.  The fear is mainly due to the impact of the malicious software, which may have minor to devastating effect to data.  Such examples include the deletion of key data, use of such data from other malicious means such as sending ill emails to contacts among other examples of the impact of malicious software (Anderson & Moore, 2006).

The impact of such infiltration doesn’t only affect funds in terms of purchasing new computers and servers or undertaking data retrieval, but also in terms of time and productivity wasted as solutions are being found.  Such fears, have led to a high demand of internet security software.  Such software has multiple malicious software to which, they have to develop protection against.  Furthermore, the cyber security software must be updated regularly with added security to counter emerging malicious software available.  Hence, given the demand for a comprehensive system, organizations within the industry today must invest large sums towards the development of the software.  Additionally, such organizations must develop software that has an edge over competitor’s cyber security software (Davis et al. 2004).

Consumers are laden with the high software development costs.  Consumers have to register for annual packages at a fee.  Whereas there is even free cyber security software, cyber security organizations have developed a perspective among consumers that cheap and free cyber security software is defective.

Hence, consumers today are faced with a basic requirement of utilizing internet resources: having cyber security software.  Moreover, the probability of malicious software impetrating a system has been over advertised.  Hence, consumers are paying for a service that is not such an essential priority as advertised.  Further, in the case of such software allowing malicious software to penetrate a system, clauses within the terms and conditions of cyber security contracts eliminate liability on the side of the organization.  In such cases, the cyber security software provider can claim that the firm had no knowledge of the new malicious threat or it was in the process of developing a solution against the threat (Byres & Lowe, 2004).

Therefore, the cyber security is losing-lose scenario for internet consumers.  First, consumers require having cyber security software to use the internet.  Yet, such software may not protect against all malicious software. In such cases, the consumer covers the cost of such infiltration.   Until the threat of cyber attack can be addressed globally and policed globally, there will never be a total safe domain to surf the web.   

Moral and Ethical considerations

            Cyber security software developers have an ethical responsibility against utilizing the information that they protect.  It is an ethical responsibility that is partially also enforced by law.  However, among other potential loopholes of collection of private data, cyber security has the greatest opportunity (Naedele, 2005).

Such organizations, are least suspected to be collectors of private information.  Yet, the opportunity exists to undertake actions to the contrary without users suspecting it to be cyber security software.  Within even such software, potential loopholes in the software provide the opportunity for other parties to use the cyber security software to collect information.  Such cases may be by choice or because of technical expertise deficiency (Byres & Lowe, 2004).

Thus, the ethical responsibility does not suffice to protect against the encroachment of data by cyber security provider.  Furthermore, cyber security software can be developed as a means of collecting private information whereas it is marketed as a solution to cyber security needs.  Even in cases, such software may mimic or looks like a direct copy of an internationally acclaimed cyber security system.  Therefore, it is the moral responsibility for cyber security software developers to not only seal such weaknesses but also increasingly improve their systems to protect against malware shortcomings (Geer, 2006).

            Cyber protection of public databases opens the opportunity for private firms to handle information critical to a country.  Such information includes land and resources data, public health information, education databases, welfare and social services information.  Such information is highly private to the individuals in context as well as the context.  In targeting such public information, it can yield a swathe of information that can be important for capital gain (Johnson, 2005).

Use of cyber security technology provides a network path towards hacking national infrastructure.  Whereas, the government may target improving the security of information systems, cyber security may be slightly ignored.  Such a statement is a misnomer that can be better understood through the analysis of the hacking of an Iranian nuclear plant by Israeli government sectioned hackers (Cárdenas et al. 2008).

In this case, the hackers developed a virus and hacked the software of a mobile phone of staff of the nuclear facility.  Potentially, the virus was loaded on the phone through the internet; the virus then utilized the phone’s Bluetooth and Wi-Fi network to impenetrate the information system of the nuclear plant.  The virus subsequently spread through the facility leading to the inability of the facility to continue normal operations without mishap.

Recently, from an internet security perspective, the government of the United States has been subject to international uproar.  Snowden revealed that the United States had been collecting information from tapping telephones and internet communication of dignitaries and country intelligence.  Such information was collected even from presidents of countries.

The United States government had several tools at its disposal through which it can undertake such international hacking. Internet security today, has many loopholes by which, the government can utilize towards its collection and infiltration of intelligence of other nations. Weakness within the framework of security programs such as dubious software updates can be exploited with ease.

Yet such worries on the infiltration of national intelligence are not only assumed only a United States affair but also other countries are undertaking similar efforts.  Notably among such countries include, China, Russia, Israel and even Iran.  Key concerns by countries include a threat to their national security such as Iran utilizing its nuclear production capacity negatively to launch nuclear bombs was a concern to Israel.  Such concern was to the extent, that Israel infiltrated security systems of Iran with a virus that led to the incapacitation of a nuclear enrichment plant.


            We are looking at a culture that in the next twenty years will probably not have any kind of actual interaction at all.  Everything will be accomplished by using some form of social communication.  So as a culture do we let the internet and all it has to give us take over our lives and make us into a culture where we can’t say hi without texting it?  Or do we take a stand against the digital age and start to put back vocal communication and actually driving to the store back into our daily routine.  I say from now on instead of emailing the person in the cubicle next to you at work, get up and actually talk to that individual.  The next time you need a gallon of milk, walk or drive down to the corner store and actually pay cash for it.  Start remembering how to actually count change.  We say that even with all the new technology and despite how great the internet has made our live, we need to get out and still communicate with the people around us.  So we don’t lose that skill in our lives “communication”.


            With the growth of the internet, unless something better comes out it is here to stay.  There are new companies popping up every day to just design site for the internet and social media.  So instead of allowing it to change our culture, we should embrace it as another tool that we can use to better our lives.  But let us not forget that we are humans and not machines.  Our interactions should still be based on actual communication and human contact.  Don’t let us fall into the trap of the only way we can communicate is thought a machine.  As technology advances, we need to advance with it but keep in mind that there are certain things that set us apart from what we create and we should keep that separation.











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