Project #37297 - Cardiology

1- Briefly provide a diagram of the cardiac gross anatomy –labeled

2- Briefly provide a diagram of the cardiopulmonary blood flow–labeled

3- Identify and discuss the basic components of the cardiac cycle

4- Describe the histology of cardiac tissue

5- Explain the roles that certain ions play in cardiac electrophysiology: Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg+

6- Define resting and action potential while describing the phases included in their function

Contractile (muscle) cell:  Phase 0-4

Conductive cell: Phase 0-3

7- Discuss the importance of an adequate refractory period

8- Discuss the components and process involved in excitation-contraction coupling



9- Be able to describe cardiac output as a function of stroke volume and heart rate

10- Discuss Starling’s Law

11- Discuss factors contributing to vascular resistance

12- Explain the effects of the following on cardiac output:

a- Autonomic nervous system and its components

b- Hormonal influence

c- Temperature

d- Electrolyte Balance

e- Sex and Age


13- Discuss the importance of fluid regulation and its components

a- Distribution and function of water in the body

b- Hydrostatic forces and osmotic pressure

c- The hypothalamus and thirst response

d- Osmoreceptors and baroreceptors

e- Clinical problems with fluid balance




14- Identify the origin of the 1st heart sound (S1) and factors that determine its intensity

15- Identify the origin of the 2nd heart sound (S2) and factors that determine its intensity

a- Discuss physiological splitting of S2

b- Discuss abnormal alterations such as widened, fixed and paradoxical splitting

16- Discuss the etiology of extra heart sounds

a- Extra systolic sounds

b- Opening snap

c- Third heart sound (S3) and forth heart sound

d- Quadruple rhythm or summation gallop and pericardial knock

17- Discuss the etiology of a murmur:  Systolic, diastolic murmurs, and continuous

18- Identify the components/characteristics of a normal cardiac radiography

19- Identify characteristics of a chest radiograph that may be consistent with certain pulmonary manifestations

20- Describe the role of the electrocardiography (ECHO) in the diagnosis of cardiac disorders:  21- ventricular assessment, valvular lesions, CAD, cardiomyopathy, pericardial disease

a- M-mode echocardiography and 2-D echocardiography

b- Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)

c- Contrast echocardiography

d- Stress echocardiography

22- Discuss the role cardiac catheterization play in diagnosing cardiovascular abnormalities

a- Measurement of pressures: RA, RV, PAP, PCWP

b- Measurement of blood flow

c- Calculation of vascular resistance: PVR, SVR

d- Contrast angiography

23- Describe the process of assessing myocardial perfusion, ventricular function, and myocardial metabolism using nuclear imaging

24- Discuss the use of CT and MRI in the assessment of cardiac health

25- Identify important laboratory/chemistry values used in the assessment of cardiovascular status



26- Understand the basic components of an electrocardiogram

27- Discuss the formation of normal impulses to include the following:

a- Ionic basis of automaticity

b- Native and latent pacemakers

c- Overdrive suppression

d- Electrotonic interactions

28- Describe the etiology of altered impulse formation and conduction of certain dysrhythmias:

29- Identify certain approaches antiarrhythmic treatment

a- Anticholinergic

b- Beta-receptor agonist

c- Vagotonic maneuvers

d- Cardioversion and defibrillation

e- Implantable cardioverter/defibrillators

g- Ablation

30- Identify commonly observed bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias

31- Define Hypertension, essential hypertension, and secondary hypertension

32- Identify some causes of secondary hypertension:

a- Exogenous

b- Renal

c- Mechanical

d- Endocrine

33- List possible clinical signs and symptoms of hypertension

34- Discuss the potential for organ damage due to hypertension

35-Define hypertensive crisis

36- Discuss different treatments of hypertension



37- Define Atherosclerosis

38- Identify the layers of arterial walls

39- Discuss the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis to include the following

a- Endothelial dysfunction

b- Lipoprotein entry and modification

c- Recruitment of leukocytes

d- Recruitment of smooth muscle cells

40- Discuss complication that may occur due to atherosclerosis

41- Identify risk factors for atherosclerosis and modification strategies for prevention

42- Understand the role of homocystein, lipoprotein, c-reactive protein, and infection in

43- Explain the and determinants of myocardial oxygen supply and demand

44- Describe the pathophysiology of ischemia

45- List and explain potential consequences of ischemia

46- Define the different ischemic syndromes

47- Identify key clinical presentations of chronic stable angina and its treatment

48- List and discuss certain pharmacologic agents used in the treatment of angina

a- Nitrates

b- Beta blockers

c- Calcium channel blockers

d- Aspirin

49- Discuss modalities of care aimed toward preventing myocardial infarction/death

a- Antiplatelets

b- Lipid-lowering

c- ACE inhibitors

e- Revascularization

Subject Medicine
Due By (Pacific Time) 08/10/2014 12:00 am
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