Project #35710 - Phyical Science

I need some assistance with my final is there anyone that can help me with it.  It is a physical science class.









Choose the best answer to each of the multiple choice questions. Answer all questions in this section. Each question is worth 1 point.


This section is worth 40 points.






[1] In the scientific method, a hypothesis is _____.


A ) is a statement of fact


B ) makes a prediction that can be tested


C ) is usually proven to be correct


D ) can only be tested once


E )all of these




[2] Which of the following can be considered a definition of "theory?"


A ) A theory can be an explanation of scientific laws.


B ) A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported by a large body of observations and experiments.


C ) A theory is a condensation and simplification of many data that previously appeared unrelated.


D ) A theory is a prediction for new data suggesting new relationships among a range of natural phenomena.


E ) All of the above.




[3] An integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses is known as a _____.


A ) fact


B ) law


C ) control


D ) theory


E ) guess






[4] What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?


I. State a problem


II. Analyze and interpret data


III. Develop a hypothesis


IV. Share the results with other scientists


V. Design and perform experiment to test the hypothesis


A ) I – II - III - IV – V


B ) III – I - V – II – IV


C ) V – IV – III – II – I


D ) I – III – V – II – IV


E )V – II – I – III - IV








[5] The law of conservation of energy states that in the absence of external work input or output, _____.


A ) energy cannot be created or destroyed


B ) momentum cannot be created or destroyed


C ) mass cannot be created or destroyed


D ) energy can be created and then destroyed




[6] That family of elements that is highly nonreactive is called the _____.


A ) alkaline earth family


B ) transition metals


C ) alkali metal family


D ) rare gas family




[7] The role of a catalyst is to _____.


A ) speed up a chemical reaction


B ) slow down a chemical reaction


C ) act as a reactant in a chemical reaction


D ) serve as a product in a chemical reaction




[8] Ocean water has a pH around 8.2. Identify the correct statement.


A ) Ocean water is neither acidic nor basic.


B ) Ocean water is slightly acidic.


C ) Ocean water is slightly basic.


D ) Ocean water has a neutral pH.




[9] During an _____ reaction, _____.


A ) exothermic; energy is released


B ) endothermic; energy is absorbed


C ) both are correct


D )both are incorrect




[10] Elements in the same period on the Periodic Table will have the _____.


A ) same number of electrons in their outermost energy levels


B ) same number of protons in their outermost energy levels


C ) increasing number of protons as they move across the period


D )decreasing number of protons as they move across the period




[11] Which of the following represents a chemical change?


A ) Metal expanding when heated.


B ) Dry ice, solid carbon dioxide, undergoing sublimation.


C ) The burning of gasoline.


D )Ice melting




[12] Groups on the periodic table list elements with _____.


A ) similar chemical properties


B ) different chemical properties


C ) similar number of electrons


D )similar number of neutrons






[13] Spectral lines are useful in _____.


A ) Identifying atoms or molecules


B ) understanding how electrons are arranged in atoms.


C ) both of the above


D )none of the above




[14] Which of the following does not influence the rate of a reaction?


A ) Temperature


B ) Presence of a catalyst


C ) Concentration of reactants


D )Molar mass




[15] Cups made of different materials are sitting on the kitchen counter. Each is filled with hot coffee having the same temperature. Which type of cup will cool the quickest?


A ) Glass


B ) Ceramic


C ) Metal


D )Styrofoam




[16] Which part of the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum has the lowest energy?


A ) The blue end.


B ) The yellow end.


C ) The red end.


D )The ultraviolet end.




[17] Which of the following forces is greatest?


A ) Gravitational Force


B ) Electromotive Force


C ) Nuclear Force


D ) Coulombic Force




[18] As the distance between two oppositely charged particles is tripled, _____.


A ) the attractive force is one-third as large


B ) the attractive force increases by a factor of three


C ) the attractive force is one-ninth as large


D ) the repulsive force is one-ninth as large




[19] Temperature is generally proportional to a substance's _____.


A ) chemical energy


B ) vibrational potential energy


C ) rotational kinetic energy


D ) average translational kinetic energy




[20] The force of gravity between two bodies depends on their _____.


A ) masses and charges


B ) masses and distance apart


C ) charges and distance apart


D )masses only






[21] Identify the correct statement below dealing with Newton's Second Law.


A ) Force and mass are inversely proportional to one another.


B ) Force and acceleration are inversely proportional to one another.


C ) Mass and acceleration are inversely proportional to one another.


D )Mass and acceleration are directly proportional to one another.




[22] A box is moved from the floor to the top of a table.


A ) Work is done by the box.


B ) Potential energy of the box increases.


C ) Kinetic energy of the box is constant throughout the process.


D )None of the above




[23] Light waves and sound waves both consist of vibrations. However, _____.


A ) sound waves require no medium for transmission


B ) sound and light waves both require a medium for transmission


C ) light waves require no medium for transmission


D )light waves require a medium for transmission




[24] If the distance between two stars is doubled, the force of gravity between them __


A ) is unchanged


B ) increases by a factor of four


C ) decreases by a factor of four


D ) decreases by a factor of two




[25] Which of these statements is false about activation energy?


A ) It determines the rate of a chemical reaction


B ) It is the energy barrier of a chemical reaction


C ) Catalysts lower the activation energy of a reaction


D ) It is lower for endothermic reactions than for exothermic reactions




[26] Which of these is a vector quantity?


A ) mass


B ) energy


C ) power


D ) momentum




[27] If we push an object at constant velocity, how does the friction acting on the object compare to our pushing force


A ) equal to the pushing force


B ) greater than the pushing force


C ) less than the pushing force


D ) none of the above












[28] Which of these are true of gamma rays:


I) Its frequency is lower than ultraviolet radiation. II) Gamma irradiation can be used to destroy harmful micro-organisms. III) They are electromagnetic waves. IV) They can bring about genetic mutations in humans.


A ) I only


B ) II only


C ) II, III and IV


D ) none of the above




[29] When alpha particles pick up electrons, they become _________


A ) Helium gas


B ) Hydrogen gas


C ) Lithium


D ) none of the above


[30] The force responsible for chemical bonding is


A ) nuclear


B ) gravitational


C ) electromagnetic


D ) none of these




[31] If atoms unite by transfer of electrons, they form


A ) an element


B ) an ionic compound


C ) a polar molecule


D ) a covalent compound




[32] Substances that are diminished in a chemical reaction are called


A ) products


B ) reactants


C ) catalysts


D ) solvents






[33] Water has a high specific heat capacity. This property explains the fact that _____


A ) water has a high humidity,


B ) water can boil quickly


C ) water has a moderating effect on climate


D ) water has a linear shape










[34] In metals, heat transfer occurs through


A ) convection


B ) conduction


C ) none of the above


D ) all of the above




[35] The source of all magnetism is


A ) tiny bits of iron


B ) small lodestones


C ) the motion of electrons


D ) none of the above




[36] A metal cube of mass 3kg is immersed halfway in water. If the volume of water displaced is 3L, what is the density of the metal?


A ) 1000kg/m3


B ) 500kg/m3


C ) 600kg/m3


D ) 800kg/m3




[37] The period of a wave is


A ) the distance between identical parts of the wave


B ) the number of complete oscillations in a given time period


C ) the speed of the wave


D ) the time it takes for a complete oscillation




[38] Which of these is an electromagnetic wave?


A ) sound waves


B ) water waves


C ) seismic waves


D ) light waves




[39] The speed of sound


A ) increases with temperature


B ) decreases with temperature


C ) is unaffected by temperature


D ) none of the above










[40] The bending of light when it travels from one medium into another is known as____


A ) refraction


B ) reflection


C ) absorption


D ) none of the above






















Answer all questions in this section. To get full credit for a question you must show your work and explain your reasoning in detail. Each question is worth 4 points. This section is worth 24 points total.




[1] A 50 newton horizontal force pushes a 10 kg mass sitting on a horizontal surface. Additionally, the horizontal surface exerts a 25 newton frictional force on the mass. What is the acceleration of the mass?




[2] A water wave oscillates up and down three times each second. The distance between wavecrests is 2 m.


a. What is its frequency?


b. What is its wavelength?


c. What is its speed of this wave?




[3] An isotope of the element Thallium, Tl-206, undergoes beta decay with a half life of 3.1minutes. Assume you begin with 1.0 grams of the thallium isotope, what mass of the isotope will be left after 9.3 minutes have elapsed?




[4] Assume that a 6 volt battery is in a circuit that has a resistance of 10 ohms. Determine the current and power.Provide numerical values and units.




[5] A solution has a hydronium-ion concentration of 1.0 x 10-5 mol per liter. What is the pH of this solution? Is this solution acidic or basic? What is the hydroxide-ion concentration of this solution?




[6] Balance the following chemical equations.


a. Fe+ O2 ® Fe2O3


b. F2 + HBr ® Br2 + HF
















Section: Section-3


Answer all questions in this section. Explain in detail to get full credit. Each question is worth 4 points. This section is worth 36 points total.








[1] How would you explain the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy? Give an example from the real world where potential energy is transferred to kinetic energy.




[2] How would you describe the differences between heat, temperature, and thermal energy? Give examples of how each term is used.




[3] Describe the components in the atom. Indicate the charge on each of the species and their location. Indicate the role, if any, that each plays in (a) chemistry and (b) nuclear processes.  




[4] Describe the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond. Give an example of a compound that exhibits ionic bonding. Give an example of a compound that exhibits a covalent bond.




[5] Describe the difference between an exothermic reaction and an endothermic reaction. In an endothermic reaction, is the energy of the reactants higher or lower than that of the products? Draw an energy diagram for an endothermic reaction and label the axes.




[6] What is a circuit? Identify 3 differences between a series and a parallel circuit. How are the devices in a typical home connected – in series or in parallel? How do you know?




[7] How would you describe radioactive decay? Give a real-world application of this concept. Name two types of radiation emitted by radioisotopes and identify a difference between these two types of radiation




[8] What is Newton’s law of universal gravitation? What is the force of gravity? Where is it strongest? Is there any gravity on the moon? What is the gravitational force on the moon dependent on?  Planets A and B have identical masses but the distance between planet A and the earth is three times the distance between planet B and the earth. How does the weight of an object on A compare to the weight of the object on B?




[9] Describe the difference between any two methods of heat transfer. Why do we feel hot when we wear black on a sunny day?  If we wanted to keep warm on a cooler day, should you wear black or light-colored clothing? Why?


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