Project #29187 - Ethics Questions

Shorter Answer Questions.


1. What is an argument? When is an argument valid? When is it sound?


2. What are the standard features of a moral argument? What are the ways we can evaluate the different features?


3. What is the argument from cultural difference for moral relativism? What does Kreeft think is the missing premise in usual forms of that argument? How does Kreeft criticize this full argument?


4. What three elements are part of most moral theories? What is the basis of moral action for deontological, consequentialist and virtue theories?


5. What is the difference between being instrumentally and being intrinsically good?


6. Explain Bentham’s view about the place of pleasure and pain in human life. How does this make him a moral hedonist?


7. What is the principle of utility for Bentham and Mill? What does “happiness” mean to them?


8. What does the fact that most would not hook themselves up to an Experience Machine think Nozick tells us about hedonism?


9. What are the two parts of a good will? Why does Kant think that a good will is the only thing that is good without qualification?


10. Explain how the hypothetical imperative is a command of our own practical rationality. How does Kant derive the categorical imperative from the structure of the hypothetical imperative?


11. What is the universal law of nature formulation of the categorical imperative? What is the humanity formulation of the categorical imperative?


12. Use the categorical imperative procedure to test whether Kant would think it was moral to pour your used motor oil in the parking lot rather than taking it to the recycling center in order to save time.


13. Why does Kant think that our human nature means each of us is of absolute value and an “end in itself?”


14. Let x be some thing. What is x’s ergon (function)? How does the answer to this question also give us an answer to the question “When is x well-off?” What does Aristotle take the function of the human being to be?


15. Explain Aristotle’s six-part definition of a character virtue.


Essay Questions.


1. What is the difference between Bentham and Mill’s view of pleasure? How does Mill’s view respond to a common criticism of utilitarianism? How does Mill support his view? Do you think Mill’s view succeeds in responding to the criticism and maintaining the utilitarian view of pleasure? Why or why not?


2. Do you think that an action only has “moral worth” if it is both the moral action to do and is done from duty? Why or why not?


3. Ian Maitland argues that we should accept “painful trade-offs” in terms of labor standards in sweatshops in developing countries. What does he think will result if companies pay higher than the wages set by the local labor market? What do Arnold and Bowie argue in response? Which side do you agree with in the debate and why?


4. Do you think that Aristotle’s argument about the function of the human being is sound? Why or why not?

5. Peter Singer argues that it is immoral that affluent people do not contribute much more to charities which save the lives of the world’s poor. How does Singer try to convince us of this? How does the “Bob and his Bugatti” case figure in? How much of our income does Singer think we ought to contribute? Do you agree with Singer’s arguments? Why or why not?


Subject Philosophy
Due By (Pacific Time) 05/03/2014 12:00 am
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