Project #27899 - Statistics


(1). Define each of the following terms:


Population Dependent variable


Sample Constant


Data Statistic


Variable Parameter


Independent variable


(2). what are four methods of acquiring knowledge? Write


a short paragraph describing the essential characteristics


of each.


(4). Write a short paragraph comparing naturalistic observation


and true experiments.


(5). Distinguish between descriptive and inferential statistics.


Use examples to illustrate the points you make


(8). Indicate which of the following situations involve


descriptive statistics and which involve inferential




a. An annual stockholders’ report details the assets of


the corporation.


b. A history instructor tells his class the number of


students who received an A on a recent exam.


c. The mean of a sample set of scores is calculated to


characterize the sample.


d. The sample data from a poll are used to estimate


the opinion of the population.


e. A correlational study is conducted on a sample to


determine whether educational level and income in


the population are related.


f. A newspaper article reports the average salaries of


federal employees from data collected on all federal




(9). For each of the following, identify the sample and


population scores:


a. A social psychologist interested in drinking behavior


investigates the number of drinks served in


bars in a particular city on a Friday during “happy


hour.” In the city, there are 213 bars. There are too


many bars to monitor all of them, so she selects 20


and records the number of drinks served in them.


The following are the data:


50 82 47 65


40 76 61 72


35 43 65 76


63 66 83 82


57 72 71 58




b. To make a profit t from a restaurant that specializes


in low-cost quarter-pound hamburgers, it is necessary


that each hamburger served weigh very close


to 0.25 pound. Accordingly, the manager of the


restaurant is interested in the variability among the


weights of the hamburgers served each day. On a


particular day, there are 450 hamburgers served. It


would take too much time to weigh all 450, so the


manager decides instead to weigh just 15. The following


weights in pounds were obtained:


0.25 0.27 0.25


0.26 0.35 0.27


0.22 0.32 0.38


0.29 0.22 0.28


0.27 0.40 0.31






c. A machine that cuts steel blanks (used for making


bolts) to their proper length is suspected of being


unreliable. The shop supervisor decides to check the


output of the machine. On the day of checking,


the machine is set to produce 2-centimeter blanks.


The acceptable tolerance is ±0.05 centimeter. It


would take too much time to measure all 600 blanks


produced in 1 day, so a representative group of 25 is


selected. The following lengths in centimeters were




2.01 1.99 2.05 1.94 2.05


2.01 2.02 2.04 1.93 1.95


2.03 1.97 2.00 1.98 1.96


2.05 1.96 2.00 2.01 1.99


1.98 1.95 1.97 2.04 2.02




d. A physiological psychologist, working at Tacoma


University, is interested in the resting, diastolic


heart rates of all the female students attending the


university. She randomly samples 30 females from


the student body and records the following diastolic


heart rates while the students are lying on a cot.


Scores are in beats/min.


62 85 92 85 88 71


73 82 84 89 93 75


81 72 97 78 90 87


78 74 61 66 83 68


67 83 75 70 86 72




(2). Identify which of the following represent continuous


variables and which are discrete variables:


a. Time of day


b. Number of females in your class


c. Number of bar presses by a rat in a Skinner box


d. Age of subjects in an experiment


e. Number of words remembered


f. Weight of food eaten


g. Percentage of students in your class who are females


h. Speed of runners in a race


(3). Identify the scaling of each of the following variables:


a. Number of bicycles ridden by students in the freshman




b. Types of bicycles ridden by students in the freshman




c. The IQ of your teachers (assume equal interval




d. Proficiency in mathematics, graded in the categories


of poor, fair, and good


e. Anxiety over public speaking, scored on a scale of


0–100 (Assume the difference in anxiety between


adjacent units throughout the scale is not the same.)


f. The weight of a group of dieters


g. The time it takes to react to the sound of a tone


h. Proficiency in mathematics, scored on a scale of


0–100 (The scale is well standardized and can be


thought of as having equal intervals between adjacent




i. Ratings of professors by students on a 50-point


scale (There is an insufficient basis for assuming


equal intervals between adjacent units.)


(4). A student is measuring assertiveness with an interval


scale. Is it correct to say that a score of 30 on the scale?


represents half as much assertiveness as a score of 60? Explain


(8). Find the values of the expressions listed here:


a. Find a






Xi for the scores X1 _ 3, X2 _ 5, X3 _ 7,


X4 _ 10.


b. Find a






Xi for the scores X1 _ 2, X2 _ 3, X3 _ 4,


X4 _ 6, X5 _ 9, X6 _ 11, X7 _ 14.


c. Find a






Xi for the scores X1 _ 10, X2 _ 12, X3 _ 13,


X4 _ 15, X5 _ 18.


d. Find a






Xi for the scores X1 _ 22, X2 _ 24, X3 _ 28,


X4 _ 35, X5 _ 38, X6 _ 40.


10. Represent each of the following with summation


notation. Assume the total number of scores is 10.


a. X1 _ X2 _ X3 _ X4_ _ X10


b. X1 _ X2 _ X3


c. X2 _ X3 _ X4


d. X2


2 _ X3


2 _ X4


2 _ X5






Subject Mathematics
Due By (Pacific Time) 04/30/2014 12:00 am
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