Project #16366 - boilogy

The below points are the maion points we are going to be exmin in , so i need full explaining answers with graphs if applicable in all of the below points.



1.      Chapter 7- DNA structure and function - know about the following:

  1. Structure of DNA and RNA (the type of sugar and the bases of these nucleic acid),
  2. Backbone of DNA, Base pairing in DNA what pairs with what.
  3. Origin of DNA replication in prokaryote and Eukaryote, what is semi-conservative, Leading strand and lagging strand mode of replication 
  4.  Chargaff’s rule for A, G, C & T (calculate the percentage of a base)
  5. Complementary strand sequence in DNA, DNA to RNA
  6. Experiments to confirm DNA is the genetic material- Bacterial strains used in the study.
  7. Types of mutation at DNA and chromosomal level
  1. Chapter-8 Cell division and reproduction- Mitosis - know about the following
  • Purpose of mitosis
  • What is going on the following cell cycle stages (G1, S G2, M)
  • Major events in the phases of mitosis (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase)
  • Chromosome number in a given cell after mitosis

·         What are chromatids, centromer, What is cytokinesis? Is there difference in Cytokinesis between animal and plant cells.

  1. Chapter 9 cell division and reproduction-meiosis  know about the following
    1. Purpose of meiosis, Major events in the phases of meiosis.
    2. Chromosome number after meiosis for a given species
    3. Characteristics of homologous chromosomes
    4. What is crossing over and independent assortment .
    5. Nondisjunction, monosomy, and trisomy examples of monsomy and trisomy
    6. Differences between mitosis and meiosis 
  2. Chapter 10- Mendelian pattern of inheritance
    1. Genotype and phenotype
    2. Dominant and recessive (gene actions)
    3. What are Gametes, Haploid vs diploid
    4. The outcome from Monohybride (AA x aa) inheritance, and Dihybride (AABB x aabb) inheritance
    5. The probability of getting certain type phenotype from given crosses- example AaxAa- what is the probability of getting aa?
    6. Types and number of possible gametes from diploid organisms with single or two traits- TT, or TtGg.
    7. Define alleles; homozygous and heterozygous.
    8. What are, autosomal chromosomes and Sex chromosomes, sex linked inheritance (dominant vs recessive gene inheritance)
    9. Inheritance and gene action (offspring from crosses E.g (AA x aa- what are the F1 generation?)
    10. Altered medilian inheritance-What is Incomplete dominance?, codominance? Pleiotropy, Polygenic traits?

5.       Chapter 15 Viruses Chap 15 Virus

a. what are viruses? why they are considered non-living?

b.  is a virus have both DNA and RNA or one of the nucleic acid?

c. What is the outer coat of a virus made of?

d. What are the five stages in viral replication? understand each step

e. What is Lytic infection, Lysogenic infection

f. what are Viroids and Prions


6.      Chapter 16 Bacteria and Archaea

a.  Differentiate between bacteria and archaea,

b. What are the internal and external structures of bacteria

c.  What are plasmids? The three shapes of bacteria

d. What is the difference between gram (+) and (-) bacteria

e. what technique is used in to identify gram + from gram -

f. How does the Gram stain technique

g. Know about metabolic pathways used in classification

h.  Know about Vertically and Horizontally DNA transfer

i. know the following: Extrimophiles,   Rhizobium

7.      Chapter 17 Protists

a.  Identify plant like protist, animal like protist,

b. Which protist has silica

c. Which algae is the closet relative of plants

d. What is pseudopodia? which protista has pseudopodia? for what it uses it?


e. Which protista has cilia , and for what it is used? 

Subject Science
Due By (Pacific Time) 11/09/2013 12:00 am
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