This the Outline of the essay. all other instructions will be attached.
its a 10 page paper + bibliography
Haiti is one of the Caribbean nations that shares an island with Hispaniola and on the east side of are the Dominican Republic.
The island is termed to be having the African slaves who are the population in the country.
The population of the country is still little but growing gradually.
Haiti has been hit by many natural disasters recently like earth quakes and others in which it has been recovering from all these setbacks.
The country was colonized by France and took control of its independence in 1804, the second nation after America to be free from colonization.
However, the nation has endured many difficulties ranging from social, economical and political issues since its independence.
On its government formation, the country has the president who heads the country and the prime minister who heads the government in terms of ministers and other executive members of the nation.
In addition, the country has two legislative houses in which there is the senate with thirty members and the Chamber of Deputies with ninety nine members on board.
The country has one national language which is the French since the Haiti nation was colonized by the French so, they had to learn the language and use it as their national language.
The population of Haiti is estimated to be over ten million people with the majority being blacks all supposedly had been the slaves in the colonial era (Dubois, 2013). .
On its economical side, the country has been seriously affected by the frequent natural disasters in the area and their economic status is still low and gradually growing. The farming activities in the country is not good at all since, the soil in the area is soft and lose fertility very quickly or in a short period of time.
The social situation and culture in Haiti is simply little farming and art. Some of the musicians come from Haiti are all making a difference in the country.
In conclusion, Haiti is a nation that is growing gradually though it was the second nation after America to regain its freedom from colonialism (Dubois, 2013).
Dubois, L. (2013). Haiti: The aftershocks of history. New York: Picador / Metropolitan Books.
Issue #1: Political Instability
Historically, the Haitian government lacked a centralized and well-developed institution as it was clogged with a government that wanted to maintain power while extracting wealth from the local peasant farmers. The locals based in the rural regions benefited the least from the military-ruled dominated government.
Haiti has been faced with corruption giant and massive rigging of the elections since the attaining of independence. This has seen the massacre of those fighting for their freedom to have free and fair elections. The opponents have been silenced by use violent force just for the wealthy to retain their political domination.
Since attaining its independence, Haiti has never developed a stable civic culture to unite its citizens. The state is split into two based on different levels, like the elites and the masses, the rural and the urban (Trouillot, 1990).
As a state that has attained independence, Haiti has experienced short-lived political regimes some lasting for close to nine months. This has been facilitated by the constant overthrowing of the ruling regime by the military, leaders extending their regime unconstitutionally. The short regime has resulted in the breakdown of the public institutions including the most dominant system; the army due to a constant breakdown in the chain of command.
With the continuous detaining of the political opponents who demand free and fair elections, the Haitian prisons are getting overcrowded. The situation is worsening as the already unstable governments isn’t paying attention to the public institutions like the correction facilities. The judicial system is deteriorating as there are no fair trials.
Issue #1 Solutions:
The Haitian leaders and the citizens should ensure a well-defined political regime as outlined in the constitution. This will minimize the cases of government being overthrown.
The public institutions like the army, judiciary, anti-corruption bodies should be strengthened for the law enforcement and prosecution of the political criminals. This will lead to free and fair elections with minimal rigging.
The international peacekeeping bodies like the United Nations and other countries should intervene through negotiations and the use of the army. The negotiations will unite the political rivals while the military will try to maintain peace in case violence erupts.
Issue #2: Human Rights:
Topic Sentence: Haitians believe that they are not given the opportunities they deserve due to poverty, violence against women, inhumane prison conditions, and children domestic labor. Haiti is lacking the concept and idea of human rights within their culture and society.
Poverty: The 2010 earthquake led to the growth of poverty, corruption and poor infrastructure. Poverty is affecting most Haitians in several aspects of meeting their basic needs. These aspects include housing, food, clothing, healthcare and education. Parents cannot afford to support their children in any way possible and in some cases, are forced to give them up.
Violence against women: Haiti suffers from the epidemic of domestic violence specifically towards women. Acts of rape and sexual assaults were growing rapidly after the 2010 earthquake. “ A 2000 study, which was repeated in 2005 and 2007 with similar results, concluded that 30% of Haitian women have suffered acts of violence from husbands or partners.” http://focusonhaiti.org/2013/08/12/domestic-and-sexual-violence-in-haiti-insufficient-remedies-inadequate-response-2/
Inhumane prison conditions:
Due to the overcrowding in the prisons of Haiti, a lack of personal privacy and space is created. Inmates are forced to shower together due to the lack of facilities and are also forced to sleep in the same bed or on the floor due to the cramped space and large amount of people. http://www.standard.co.uk/news/world/inside-haitis-prisons-a-nation-battles-crime-and-human-rights-abuses-as-it-struggles-to-recover-from-9755838.html
Being sent to jail was a death sentence for some inmates. “Some died from malnutrition and lack of sunlight, the rest from tuberculosis and AIDS.”
“Cells were without roofs. Prisoners were not fed. Inmates were not registered. They didn't know their status, and neither did officials. The people running the prisons didn't know how many people they had inside. Human rights violations were constant, and inmates were beaten.”
Children’s domestic labor: Child Trafficking
Child slave labor forces children to work in harsh conditions without pay. These kids usually work in other people’s houses and perform maid duties. In addition, they are beaten, sexually assaulted, abused, and have nothing to eat.
Parents usually send their children away due to that fact that they cannot afford to support them or want them to receive an education through another person’s home.
Physically or sexually assaulted, especially through restavèks ( a child from a poor family is send to another family to provide “domestic help”) ,which is considered to be the lowest status.
Solutions to Issue #2:
Poverty: The country should provide land and materials to help families who were affected by the earthquake and who lost their homes. By providing these basic needs, families will gain the motivation and encouragement needed to accomplish more.
Violence Against Women: Create organizations and demonstrations, to help women who have been sexually assaulted, overcome their past. This action must be treated as a crime and should have a zero-tolerance policy. Law must be enforced on all.
Inhumane Prison Conditions: Lessen the size of inmates per prison by creating more prisons. This results in a most spacious areas by providing one bed per person, private showers, and enough food for all.
Children’s Domestic Labor: Raise awareness campaigns by creating charities and taking donations. Creating a law that eliminates child slavery and forces all children to attend free public schools.
Issue #3: Health and Sanitation
Topic Sentence: Haiti has never been pinned as a hot tourist destination, and when it comes right down to it, it is entirely due to both the lack of sanitation and infectious disease sweeping the state.
What is Cholera?
By definition: An infectious and often fatal bacterial disease of the small intestine, typically contracted from infected water water supplies and causing severe vomiting and diarrhea.
The Centers for Disease and Control Prevention characterize Cholera as an acute, diarrheal illness, and reports that only 5-10% infected person will have severe symptoms. However, having such symptoms (profuse diarrhea and vomiting) leads to a loss of mass amounts of fluid, which thus results in dehydration and shock. Without any medical treatment, death can occur within only a few hours.
Where is it found?
The bacteria is usually found in water of food sources that have been contaminated by feces (poop) from a person already infected with the disease.
Most common in places with inadequate water treatment, poor sanitation, and inadequate hygiene
A person drinking or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacteria will then allow the bacteria to enter their system, where it will attack intestine.
Is not likely to spread from one person to another
Immediate replacement of the fluid and salts lost through diarrhea. Patients can be treated with oral rehydration solution, a prepackaged mixture of sugar and salts to be mixed with water. Severe cases also require intravenous fluid replacement.
Cholera In Haiti
Breakout has not been documented in Haiti for 100 years (http://www.cnn.com/2015/08/17/opinions/omalley-haiti-cholera-un/)
Caused 9,000 deaths and affected more than 735,000 people since October 2010 when the outbreak began in the aftermath of the earthquake. (UN News Article)
Country does not have a sewer system, Instead they rely on a system known as the bayakou (“An independent and somewhat secretive, laborers who clean the cesspools under people’s latrines”)
Men work with their hands to do this, climbing into the latrines with a bucket and scoop the excrement out and put it elsewhere.
Cleaned in the middle night but generally shoveled out only once every year or so (http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/26/opinion/26wilentz.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1 )
Many people cannot even afford that kind of cesspool, so they either go in open fields or canals, or even go in a plastic bag that is then just thrown into the streets.
All of this adds up to a severely unsanitary country that desperately needs clean water and useable bathroom systems.
Evidence suggests Cholera in Haiti came from a United Nations base where Nepalese peacekeeping troops were residing. (NPR Website)
The two strains, from both the base and Haiti, were exactly the same, and the sanitation on base was not sufficient to prevent contamination of the Artibonite River (adjacent river to Haiti)
Improperly managed human waste disposal site on the base, and it leaked into the river (http://www.businessinsider.com/cholera-outbreak-in-haiti-and-the-un-2015-4 )
Response to Cholera in Haiti
Since the end of 2010, “the cholera outbreak in Haiti was the largest in recent world history” However, considering the financial position of Haiti, the country has been unable to care for their own people. Thus, the UN had formed a coordinating Organization in response. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=50867#.Vs9B6vkrKM8
$9 Million in foreign aid
As of May 14, 2015, the health crisis has “fallen off the international agenda,” because as Pedro Medrano Rojas, Senior Coordinator for the Cholera Response in Haiti, wrote “When cooperation funds dry up, the response teams on the ground no longer have resources to adequately respond to alerts, treat patients and prevent further deaths.
earthquake in 2010, foreign aid created “Band-Aid” type solutions, like bladders of water that would eventually run out and temporary porta-potties in big visible places.
“Haiti is at a disadvantage, as the poorest country in Latin America and one of the poorest in the entire world. Its health system is very limited and its national sanitation system barely covers one in every four people.” (Pedro Medrano Rojas)
Issue #3 Solution:
"It's very hard to get out of the environment," Katz says. "That said, there have been many places in the world that have dealt with horrific cholera epidemics over very long periods of time. What was the solution? Sewers. "Build underground pipes," Katz says. "As long as people continue to drink water that is infected, cholera is going to be a major problem."
Russia Experience with Cholera and Solution-
1823 first Cholera outbreak that visited the Russian Empire for the first time.
Initially started in south of the Empire, in Astrakhan.
1830 epidemic broke out in Moscow
Reached St. Petersburg (capital) in 1831.
Started in June and ended in November (12,540 people fell ill in St. Petersburg and 6,449 unfortunately died).
Brought about by the poor sanitary conditions of the city
water from the rivers and canals were extremely dangerous (canals constructed in order to divert floodwater and were used for disposal of sewage and for household water needs)
People would use untreated water of Neva River as drinking water
Created cesspools in close proximity to wells (makes well water dangerous for the general public to use)
Cesspools not emptied on a regular basis = Rapid spread of cholera
Food Markets called “the Petersburg Cesspool”
June 22, 1831
Developed because of growing social tensions between the poor populations (who were most commonly affected by the epidemic) and the educated classes
No solution found right away, and Cholera became a frequent visitor to the 19th century St. Petersburg.
Water was not disinfected until the last severe cholera epidemic, which began in 1908.
1910s- Disinfection technologies at water supply pumping stations were introduced.
New treatment station was built in 1911
“ Raw water there was subsequently treated with coagulant (aluminium sulphate), supplied to sedimentation tanks, then to rapid sand filters and finally ozonised”
Main Problem = Neva River contamination
World War I, Revolutions of 1917, and the Civil War of 1918-1922 affected these new water treatment stations, and there was a period in which the Main Waterworks were not supplying fully filtered and uninfected water.
Resulted in Last Cholera case ever reported in Russia.
1917 = 65 sewerage systems designed, submitted, and considered by various commissions
Helped improve St, Petersburg Sanitation
“In 1917 the total length of streets in the city was nearly 800 km and that of sewage pipelines was only 486 km, including 356 km of wooden pipes (or 44% of the streets) and 130 km of concrete pipes (or 16% of the streets). Hence 314 km of streets (or 40%) had no sewerage at all.”
Political Instability References
Military. (n.d.). Retrieved March 07, 2016, from
The article is important because it provides a framework of the structure of the Haitian government and it also explains the political stability of the country. Additionally, it is an article that helps to understand the nature of corruption among the top officials in the country. Similarly, it provides the lifespan of leaders with some staying in power for about nine months.
Trouillot, M.-R. (1990). Haiti, state against nation: The origins and legacy of Duvalierism. New York: Monthly Review Press.
This article is significant for the research paper because the author critically analyzes the mechanisms that are employed in the slave revolution process and government can influence it through corruption and instability. Additionally, it illustrates some of recommendations to curb political instability in the country.
Human Rights References
Domestic and Sexual Violence in Haiti: Insufficient Remedies, Inadequate Response. (2013). Retrieved March 03, 2016, from http://focusonhaiti.org/2013/08/12/domestic-and-sexual-violence-in-haiti-insufficient-remedies-inadequate-response-2/
This website provides information about domestics and sexual violence in Haiti. It goes further to describing the steps the Haitian government is willing to take to end all violence.
Domestic and Sexual Violence in Haiti: Insufficient Remedies, Inadequate Response. (2013). Retrieved March 03, 2016, from
A look inside Haiti's jails. (n.d.). Retrieved March 03, 2016, from http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/haiti/jails.htm
Both these websites describes how the prisons in haiti are inhumane and are not meeting the basic human needs. And also continues by adding that the national police are not performing their job correctly because of the low pay they are receiving.
Child Slave Labor in Haiti. (n.d.). Retrieved March 05, 2016, from http://ihscslnews.org/view_article.php?id=339
This website offers information about child slave labor in Haiti. It starts off by explaining why these children are sent off to other homes to work for other families. It later describes the children’s physical and mental state while working for these other families in harsh conditions due to the abuse, no pay, and malnourishment.
Spinelli, ï¿¼ A. (n.d.). An Action Plan for thee Reconstruction and Economic Development of Haiti. Retrieved March 05, 16, from https://www.consciousglobalchange.org/doclib/Haiti_Rebirth_Plan.pdf
This website provides a list of problems and issues Haiti is facing and then goes on to offer solutions and idea to end any issue. This helped contribute to the overall paper because it provided ideas and solutions that went hand in hand with the problems that were provided.
Athreya, B. (2014, June 12). Ending Child Labor | USAID Impact. Retrieved March 06, 2016, from https://blog.usaid.gov/2014/06/ending-child-labor/
This website discusses and describes the different organizations that are trying to put a stop to child labor. It also explains the steps that have worked in the past and steps that have failed. In the end, the the author suggests numerous solutions to be considered.
Health Issues References
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. “Cholera.” Cdc.gov. 2014. Web. February 25, 2016.
This website, while not applicable to Haiti in itself, does offer valuable information regarding the Cholera virus. Haiti has been plagued with this infection for the past six years, and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention wants people to be aware of what exactly the infection is. Thus, they put together all relevant information, like what the virus is, how it can be contracted, where it can be most commonly found, and how it is treated. This ultimately contributes to the paper as a whole, because it presents a lot of background information as to how Haiti could have contracted the virus, and it can further help establish a solution to the problem. Without background, what is going on in Haiti would be utterly unknown and confusing.
O’Malley, Martin. “Cholera in Haiti.” Cnn.com. 2015. Web. February 25, 2016.
While doing research it became evident that the United Nations could have contributed to the cholera outbreak in Haiti. Thus, this news article helps shed some light on the situation, discussing just how the United Nations played a role in the catastrophe. It shows that, while Haiti is unsanitary, it may not have been their own doing. However, the article is pushing for the United Nations to take responsibility for their actions, because Haiti is not equipped to handle the situation alone. It also provides statistical information of how the virus has affected Haiti, further providing background to the virus.
“Cholera in Haiti.” Npr.com. 2014. Web. February 25, 2016.
The news article touches upon why cholera persists in Haiti despite the masses of foreign aid going in. It starts by providing statistical information regarding deaths and those infected, but it also presents new information regarding the amount of aid that has gone into fighting the disease since the article was written. The most relevant information coming from this article regards the sanitation situation in Haiti. It discusses the bayakou system in Haiti, which really highlights how Haiti could have gotten Cholera, as their water is contaminated with waste routinely. It also once again touches upon the idea of the United Nations contributing to the outbreak, cross contaminating the water supply. Offers a solution at the end of the article regarding a desperate need for a sewage system in Haiti.
Wilentz, Amy. “Bayakou.” Nytimes.com. 2010. Web. February 25, 2016.
This article provided more information regarding the Bayakou system in place in Haiti. It more specifically explains how the system works, who is involved, and how people use the system. Ultimately, it highlights the inefficiency and unsanitary conditions that exist in Haiti. However, the article was also written presumably after the devastating earthquake, so it discusses the political hardships Haiti was going through during that time. More specifically, it discussed the presidential elections scheduled for that Sunday. Thus, the article’s main goal is to portray the chaos surrounding Haiti at the time. It also provides death statistics regarding the cholera outbreak.
Rosen, Armin. “United Nations involvement with Cholera.” Businessinsider.com. 2015.
February 25, 2016.
This article was the first to truly report how the United Nations troops could have caused the infection in Haiti. Every other report only talked about the unsanitary conditions that existed in the troop base, but never specifically referenced how. However, this news article talked about the improper management of the human waste disposal site on the base. That improper management then allowed the waste to leak into the river, contaminating the Artibonite River.
“Cholera in Haiti.” Un.org. 2015. February 25, 2016.
This article discusses the importance of helping the Haitian people with the Cholera outbreak. It is on the United Nations website, so while they are most likely trying to cover their backs for starting the epidemic, they want people to realize that the issue is serious. It does talk about the dying international agenda regarding Haiti, as people are very unaware of the issue. The issue has fallen off the radar for most investors, so Haiti is rapidly losing aid. It also discusses the fact that Haiti may be dangerously affected right now but it can further spread to other countries and cause a world health epidemic.
Barabanova, Kseniya. “The First Cholera Epidemic in St. Petersburg.”
Environmentandsociety.com. 2014. March 3, 2016. http://www.environmentandsociety.org/arcadia/first-cholera-epidemic-st-petersburg
This website discusses the sanitary issues that existed in the Russian Empire in the 1800s. Due to the unsanitary conditions, Russia has been victim to various Cholera outbreaks. The most useful information obtained from this website was how exactly Cholera was spread in Russia, and it is extremely similar to Haiti’s current issue. Thus, after finding out that Russia once had the same exact problem, it was clear to see that Russia may also have a solution for Haiti.
"Haested Software Chosen for Major Panama Water Supply and Sewerage Systems Project."
World Pumps 2004.455 (2004): 51-61. Web. 3 Mar. 2016.
This PDF offered me 10 pages out of a much larger book, describing the development of water supply and sewage systems in St. Petersburg Russia. Considering sewage is Haiti's number one cause of disease, and it was once Russia’s cause, then figuring out how exactly Russia handled their sewage system is beneficial in finding a plan for Haiti. In the PDF, the 18th, 19th, and 20th century systems are discussed. Thus, it offered a lot insight on the slow development Russia underwent to solve their Cholera problem, and similar practices can then be applied to Haiti.
|Due By (Pacific Time)||04/17/2016 10:30 pm|
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