# Project #121429 - Bivariate Application and Interpretation Assignment

Let’s use what you learned not only earlier in the class but also information from Module 7 for this assignment.   Answer the following questions using your newfound knowledge about applying bivariate statistics and their p values to published results.  Make sure you answer all parts of the question to get full credit.

Empirical evidence includes descriptive statistics such as a percentages or a mean, or bivariate statistics such as a correlation coefficient.  Evidence from the statistical test refers to the p value from any statistical test such as χ2 , t test, etc.). Sometimes the latter is reported in table footnotes.

1.      Table 1 (see below) is from an article by Batiuk, Lahm, McKeever, Wilcox, and Wilcox (2005) entitled, “Disentangling the effects of correctional education:  Are current policies misguided? An event history analysis,” published in Criminal Justice, 5(1): 55-74.

In this table, the authors are describing the characteristics (gender, race, age, priors, offense, and education) of the sample of Ohio inmates who completed the various correctional educational programs included in their study (college, GED, vocational, and high school) and those who did not participate in correlational educational programs (non-education).  A total of 972 inmates who were paroled or released from Ohio’s prisons from 1989 and 1992 comprised the sample.

a.       7 points: What statistical test did the authors use to test if there are any statistical significant differences between the various background characteristics of the inmates and participation in correctional education program?

b.      12 points—6 points each part: Are female and male inmates likely to participate in the same types of educational programs?  Provide 1) empirical evidence from the table AND 2) evidence from the statistical test.

c.        12 points—6 points each part: Is the type of offense an inmate committed related to the type of education he/she participated in?  Provide 1) empirical evidence from the table AND 2) evidence from the statistical test.

d.       13 points: Describe the statistically significant characteristics of those inmates who participated in the GED program.   Simply put, what are the characteristics of these inmates, that is, what do they look like?  Be sure to include in your answer EACH of the statistically significant characteristics.

2.       Look at the correlation matrix presented Appendix (see below) from Schreck, Fisher and Miller’s article “The Social Context of Violent Victimization: A Study of the Delinquent Peer Effect.”  Justice Quarterly. 21(1), 201-224.

They used data from the first wave of the public-use version of the Add Health study, which was conducted between September 1994 and December 1995.   The Add Health sample is a nationally represented sample of students attending U.S. schools in grades 7-12.

a.       18 points (9 points for each pair and 3 points for each part): Overall, describe the statistical correlations among TWO PAIRS OF variables.  Use the following pairs of variables to answer this question:  1) violent victimization and popularity, and 2) attachment to friends and school alienation.

For EACH pair of variables, discuss each of the following: 1) direction of the relationship 2) size of relationship (actual number) and 3) strength of the relationship (e.g., weak, moderate, very strong). Go back to Salkind chapter 5, especially Table 5.3 for a refresher if needed.

b.      20 points (10 points each part): Interpret the correlation between peer delinquency and age.   State the correlation coefficient and interpret it BOTH statistically (direction, size, and strength) and substantively (what does it mean for example, as wealth of a teen’s HH increase, their use of alcohol decreases).  Assume peer delinquency is a measure of the amount of current involvement or participation in peer delinquency.  Age is measured in years (as in number of years old when survey was administered).

c.       9 points: Given what is reported in the Appendix, can you conclude if any of these correlations are statistically significant at alpha set at 0.05?

d.      9 points (3 points each part): 1) What do the correlation coefficients in the diagonal represent?  2) Why are these entire coefficients one?  3) Why is only half the table completed with correlation coefficients?

 Subject Mathematics Due By (Pacific Time) 04/15/2016 12:00 am
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